1 Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures, and which centers around his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, and appointed Son-of-God-in-power1 according to the Spirit of Holiness through his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord. Through him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations for his name’s sake, among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ. To all who are in Rome, dearly loved by God, called to be saints: Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Paul’s Longing to Visit Rome

First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for every one of you, for the news of your faith is being proclaimed all over the world. For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I mention2 you in my prayers, 10 always asking3 if perhaps now at last, by the will of God, the way may be opened for me to come to you. 11 For I long to see you, that I might impart to you some spiritual gift so that you may be established— 12 that is, that I may be encouraged, together with you,4 by our mutual faith, both yours and mine.

13 Now, brothers, I don’t want you to be unaware that I often planned to come to you (but was hindered until now), so that I might obtain some spiritual fruit among you as well, just as I have among the other Gentiles. 14 I am a debtor both to Greeks and barbarians, to the wise and the foolish. 15 Thus, for my part, I am also eager to preach the gospel to you who live in Rome.

The Power of God for Salvation

16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, since it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it a righteousness that comes from God is now revealed, a righteousness that is by faith and for faith.5 As it is written, “But he who is righteous by  faith shall live.”6

God’s Wrath Upon the Gentiles

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness; 19 for what may be known about God is evident within7 them, for God has shown it to them. 20 For since the creation of the world his invisible attributes—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood through the things that he has made,8 so that they are without excuse. 21 For though they knew God, they neither glorified him as God, nor were they thankful, but instead became futile in their thoughts, even as9 their senseless hearts were10 darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 exchanging11 the glory of the incorruptible God for an image made in the likeness of corruptible man, and of birds and four-footed animals and reptiles.12

24 So God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, for the dishonoring of their bodies with one another—13 25 these who exchanged the truth of God for a lie,14 and who worshiped and served the creature instead of the creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

26 For this reason God gave them over to shameful passions. For not only did their women exchange natural relations for that which is contrary to nature, 27 but the men also did the same: Abandoning natural relations with women, they burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing indecent acts, and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their moral waywardness.15

28 And since they did not think it worthwhile to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind, to do those things that are improper. 29 They are filled with all sorts of unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, and depravity. They overflow with16 envy, murder, strife, deceit, and malice. They are gossips, 30 backbiters, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31 senseless, untrustworthy, unloving, and unmerciful. 32 And though they know the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things deserve to die, they not only do them themselves, but also give hearty approval to those who engage in them.


  1. Or Son-of-God-with-power
  2. Or remember
  3. Or how unceasingly I always mention you in my prayers, asking
  4. Or among you
  5. Greek: ek (out of, from, by) pisteos (faith), eis (for the purpose of, resulting in) pistin (faith)
  6. Or But the righteous shall live by faith. Hab. 2:4
  7. Or among them
  8. Lit. by things that were made
  9. Lit. and
  10. Lit. senseless heart was
  11. Or changing; lit. and exchanged
  12. Or crawling things, creatures
  13. Lit. among themselves
  14. Lit. the lie
  15. Or error
  16. Lit. are full of


God’s Impartial Judgment

So then, you are without excuse, O man, every one of you who sits in judgment; for at the very point where you judge another, you condemn yourself, since you, the one who judges, practice the same things yourselfNow we know that the judgment of God on those who practice such things is in perfect harmony with the truth.1 But do you think this, O man—you who sit in judgment on those who practice such things, yet do the same things yourself—that you will escape the judgment of God? Or do you think nothing of the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not realizing that the goodness of God is meant to lead you to repentance? But in accordance with your stubbornness and your impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath, when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed. In that day he will repay each person according to his deeds: to those who seek glory, honor, and immortality by patiently doing what is good: eternal life; but to those who are selfishly ambitious, and who obey unrighteousness instead of the truth: wrath and indignation. There will be tribulation and anguish on every soul of man who practices2 evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek; 10 but glory, honor, and peace to everyone who practices good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 11 For there is no partiality with God.

12 For as many as have sinned without the Law will also perish without the Law; and as many as have sinned within the Law will be judged through the Law. 13 For it is not the hearers of the Law who will be righteous in God’s sight; rather, it is the doers of the Law who will be justified. 14 For when Gentiles, who who do not have the Law, do by nature the things prescribed in the Law, such persons, though not having the Law, become a law to themselves; 15 these show that the work required by the Law3 is written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness,4 and their thoughts going back and forth,5 either accusing or else6 defending them. 16 And so shall it be on the day when God judges the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

The Law, the Judgment, and the Jew

17 Now if you call yourself a Jew, and rest your hopes on the Law, and make your boast in God, 18 and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent (having received instruction from the Law), 19 and if you are confident that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light to those who live in darkness, 20 an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of children, having in the Law the very form of knowledge and truth— 21 how is it that you who teach others fail to teach yourself?7 You who preach that a man should not steal, do you steal? 22 You who say, “Do not commit adultery,” do you commit adultery? You who detest idols, do you rob temples? 23 You who make your boast in the Law, do you dishonor God by breaking the Law? 24 For, “The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you,” just as it is written.8

25 For circumcision is indeed profitable if you practice the Law; but if you are a breaker of the Law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 26 If, then, an uncircumcised man keeps the righteous requirements of the Law, will not his uncircumcision be counted as circumcision? 27 Indeed, the physically uncircumcised man who fulfills the Law will be your judge; for though you have9 the written code10 and circumcision, you are a transgressor of the Law! 28 For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision merely outward in the flesh. 29 Rather, he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and his circumcision is of the heart; it is by the Spirit, and not by the letter. This Jew’s11 praise is not from men, but from God.


  1. Lit. accords with truth
  2. Lit. works, does
  3. Lit. the work of the Law
  4. Lit. bearing joint witness
  5. Lit. and the thoughts between one another
  6. Or even
  7. Lit. so the one teaching another, why do you not teach yourself?
  8. See Is. 52:5; Ezek. 36:22
  9. Lit. who, though having
  10. Or letter (of the Law)
  11. Lit. whose


What Advantage Has the Jew?

“What advantage, then, does the Jew have; or what profit is there in circumcision?” Much in every way! First of all, they were entrusted with the very oracles of God! “What then if some of them were unfaithful?1 Will their unfaithfulness nullify the faithfulness of God?” 4 God forbid!2 Rather, let God be found true and every man a liar. As it is written: “That you may triumph when you speak,3 and prevail when you are judged.”4 “But if our unrighteousness exhibits the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Would not God, who inflicts wrath, be unjust?” (I am speaking here as a mere man.) God forbid! For how then could God judge the world? “But if through my lie the truth of God abounds to his glory, why should I still be judged as a sinner?” And why not say—as we are slanderously reported to be saying, and as some claim we are saying—“Let us do evil that good may result”? Their condemnation is just.

All the World Accountable to God

“What, then? Are we no better off?”  No, not at all, for we have already charged that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin. 10 As it is written:

“There is no one who is righteous, no, not one;
11 there is no one who understands;
there is no one who seeks after God.
12 All of them have turned aside;
together they have become useless;
there is no one who does good, no, not one.”5
13 “Their throat is an open grave;
with their tongues they have practiced deceit;
the poison of asps is behind their lips.”6
14 “Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.”7
15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
16 destruction and misery are in their ways,
17 and the way of peace they have not known.”8
18 “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”9

19 Now we know that whatever the Law says, it says to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be shut,10 and the whole world may become accountable to God. 20 So then: By the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in his sight, for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

Righteousness Through Faith in Christ

21 But now, apart from law,11 a righteousness that comes from God12 has been revealed. It is attested by the Law and the Prophets, 22 but comes from God through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe (for there is no distinction, 23 since all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God). 24 As a gift, and by his grace, they are justified through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God set out as a propitiatory sacrifice, effective13 through faith in his shed blood. He did this in order to demonstrate his righteousness, since, in the forbearance of God, he had passed over the sins that were previously committed, 26 yet always with a view to the demonstration of his righteousness at this present time, so that he might be both just and the justifier of all who have faith14 in Jesus.

27 Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith. 28 For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the Law. 29 Or is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles as well? Yes, of the Gentiles as well, 30 since there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 31 Are we therefore nullifying the Law through faith? God forbid! On the contrary, we are confirming15 the Law.


  1. Or did not have faith
  2. Lit. May it not be (happen)!
  3. Or in what you said; lit. be vindicated (justified) in your words
  4. Or enter into judgment; see Ps. 51:4
  5. Ps. 14:1-3, 53:1-3; Eccl. 7:20
  6. Ps. 5:9, 140:3
  7. Ps. 10:7
  8. Is. 59:7-8
  9. Ps. 36:1
  10. Or silenced; lit. blocked, stopped up
  11. Or the Law
  12. Lit. a righteousness of God
  13. Or as a site of reconciliation (lit. mercy-seat), accessible
  14. Lit. the one who has faith
  15. Or establishing


The Justification of Abraham

What then shall we say that Abraham, our father according to the flesh, discovered in this matterFor if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about—but not before God. For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was credited1 to him for2 righteousness.”3 Now to him who works, his wages are not counted as a gift, but as a debt. But to him who does not work, but believes on him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. David himself says the same thing when he4 describes the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works: “Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will never count against him.”5

9 So is this blessedness for the circumcised alone, or for the uncircumcised as well? For we say that faith was credited to Abraham for righteousness. 10 How then was it credited: while he was circumcised or uncircumcised? Not while he was circumcised, but uncircumcised! 11 And he received the sign of circumcision—a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith when as yet he was uncircumcised—that he might become the father of all the uncircumcised who believe, so that righteousness could be credited to them as well. 12 Moreover, he also became6 “the father of circumcision” to those who are not only physically circumcised,7 but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith which our father Abraham had when as yet he was uncircumcised.

Promise, Law, and Faith

13 For the promise to Abraham (or to his seed) that he would inherit the world was not given through the Law, but through the righteousness that comes by faith.8 14 For if those who live under the Law are heirs, then faith is nullified and the promise destroyed, 15 for the Law engenders wrath; but where there is no law, there is also no transgression. 16 This is why it comes through faith: so it can accord with grace, so that the promise can be guaranteed to all the seed—not just to those who live under the Law, but also to those who live by the faith of Abraham. For he9 is the father of us all 17 (as it is written, “I have made you a father of many nations”10) in the sight of him whom he believed, even God, who gives life to the dead, and who speaks of things that don’t exist as though they did. 18 In hope against hope Abraham kept on believing, and thus became the father of many nations in accordance with what had previously been spoken: “So shall your seed be.”11 19 And without weakening in faith, he contemplated his own body—already as good as dead, since he was about a hundred years old—and also the deadness of Sarah’s womb; 20 yet he did not waver at the promise of God through unbelief, but instead grew strong in faith, giving glory to God, 21 and standing12 fully persuaded that what God had promised he was also well able to perform. 22 And so “it was credited to him for righteousness.”13

23 Now it was not written for his sake alone that it was credited to him, 24 but for ours as well, to whom it would soon be14 credited: that is, to all15 who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 who was delivered up for16 our transgressions, and raised again for our justification.


  1. Greek logizomai: to credit, reckon, account, impute
  2. Lit. unto, for the purpose of
  3. Gen. 15:6
  4. Lit. just as also David
  5. Lit. to whom the Lord will never credit (impute) sin; Ps. 32:1-2
  6. Lit. as well, and
  7. Lit. not only of circumcision
  8. Lit. righteousness of faith
  9. Lit. who
  10. Gen. 17:5
  11. Gen. 15:5
  12. Lit. having been
  13. Gen. 16:6
  14. Or it was meant to be; it will be
  15. Lit. to those
  16. Lit. because of


Blessings of the Way of Faith

Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have1 peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and so rejoice in the hope of the glory of God. And not only this, but we also glory in our tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance, perseverance proven character, and proven character hope. And this is a hope that never disappoints,2 for the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

For when we were still without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. For rarely will anyone die for a righteous person, though for a good person someone might even dare to die. 8 Yet God displays his own love for us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. And now that we have been justified by his blood, how much more will we be saved3 from wrath through him! 10 For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, having been reconciled, will we be saved by his life. 11 And not only this, but we also exult4 in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we now have received the reconciliation.

The Two Adams

12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, so that death spread to all men because all sinned— 13 for until the Law, sin was in the world; but when there is no law, sin is not charged to anyone’s account. 14 Nevertheless, from the time of Adam till the time of Moses, death reigned, even over those whose sin was not like the transgression of Adam, who is a type5 of him who was to come.

15 But the gracious gift is not like the transgression. For if, by the transgression of the one, the many died, much more did the grace of God—and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ—overflow to the many. 16 And the gift is not like the judgment that came through the one who sinned. For the judgment arose from a single transgression,6 and resulted in condemnation; whereas the gracious gift arose from many transgressions, and resulted in justification. 17 For if, by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, how much more will those who receive the riches of God’s grace and his gift of righteousness7 reign in life through the One: Jesus Christ!

18 So then: Just as one transgression resulted in condemnation for all men, so too did one act of righteousness result in justification and life8 for all men. 19 For just as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so too, through the obedience of the One, the many will be made righteous. 20 Moreover, the Law came in so that the offense would abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded all the more,9 21 so that just as sin reigned in death, so too grace might reign through righteousness, resulting in eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


  1. Some mss let us have
  2. Lit. this hope does not make ashamed
  3. Lit. Much more, then, having now been justified by his blood, will we be saved
  4. Or glory, boast, rejoice
  5. I.e. a picture; lit. pattern
  6. Lit. (the) judgment (was) from one
  7. Lit. the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness
  8. Lit. justification of life
  9. Lit. superabounded


Shall the Justified Continue in Sin?

What then shall we say? Shall we go on sinning so that grace may abound? God forbid! How can we who died to sin live in it any longer? Or don’t you realize that as many of us as were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4 Accordingly,1 we also were buried with him through baptism into death, so that just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too should walk in newness of life.

For if we have been united with him in the likeness of his death, the same is certainly true in regard to his resurrection.2 For we know that our old man was crucified with him so that the body controlled by sin3 might be destroyed,4 so that we would no longer be slaves of sin. For he who has died has been freed from sin. Now if we died with Christ, we also believe that we will live with him, knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, can die no more: Death no longer has dominion5 over him. 10 For the death that he died, he died to sin once and for all; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 11 Thus, you too should consider yourselves completely dead6 to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord.

12 Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body, so as to obey its evil desires.7 13 Nor should you present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness; rather, you should present yourselves to God as those who are alive from the dead, and your members to God as instruments of righteousness. 14 For sin will not have dominion8 over you; for you are not under law, but under grace.

Holy Slavery

15 What then? Shall we go on sinning because we’re not under law, but under grace? God forbid! 16 Don’t you realize that when you constantly present yourselves as slaves to someone for obedience, you are the slaves of the one you obey: whether of sin, which leads to death, or of obedience, which leads to righteousness? 17 But thanks be to God that though you once were slaves of sin, you obeyed from the heart that form9 of teaching to which you were entrusted;10 18 and having been freed from sin, you became slaves of righteousness. 19 (I am speaking here in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.) For just as you formerly presented your members as slaves to impurity and lawlessness, resulting in11 further lawlessness, so now you must present your members as slaves to righteousness, resulting in sanctification. 20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 21 Tell me, then: What kind of fruit did you harvest from12 the things of which you’re now ashamed? For the end result of those things is death. 22 But now that you’ve been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the fruit you are harvesting leads to sanctification;13 and the end result is eternal life. 23 For the wages of sin is death, but the gracious gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.


  1. Lit. Therefore
  2. Lit. but we shall also be in regard to the resurrection
  3. Lit. the body of sin
  4. Or rendered powerless
  5. Or mastery
  6. Lit. dead indeed; truly dead
  7. Lit. lusts (cravings)
  8. Or mastery
  9. Or pattern
  10. Lit. handed over
  11. Or for the promotion of
  12. Lit. What fruit were you having in
  13. Lit. you have your fruit unto sanctification


A Better Husband

Or do you not know, brothers (for I am speaking to those who know the Law), that the Law has dominion over a man as long as he lives? For by law a married woman is bound to her husband as long as he lives; but if her husband dies, she is released from the law concerning a husband. If, then, she is joined to another man while her husband is still living, she will be called an adulteress. But if her husband dies, she is released from the law; and if she is joined to another man, she will not be an adulteress.

My brothers, this is what I am saying:1 Through the body of Christ you too were made to die to the Law so that you could be joined to another—to him who was raised from the dead—so that we all might bear fruit for God. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions aroused by the Law were at work in our members to bear fruit for death. But now that we’ve died to what held us captive, we’ve been released from the Law so that we may serve in the newness of the Spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.

Of Sin and the Law

What, then, shall we say? Is the Law sin? God forbid! On the contrary, I would never have known sin except through the Law. For I would never have known covetousness unless the Law had said, “You shall not covet.”2But sin, taking its opportunity through the commandment, produced in me every kind of evil desire. For apart from the Law, sin is dead. And apart from the Law, I was once alive; but when the commandment arrived, sin sprang to life and I died. 10 Thus, I found that the commandment—which was meant to bring life—actually brought death! 11 For sin, taking advantage of the commandment,3 deceived me; and through the commandment, it put me to death. 12 Therefore the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good.

13 So did something good become the cause of my death?4 God forbid! Rather, sin—that it might be seen as sin—produced death in me through something that was good, so that sin, through the commandment, might become sinful beyond measure. 14 For we know that the Law is spiritual, whereas I am fleshly, sold under sin. 15 For I cannot understand what I keep on doing. For what I want to do, I do not perform;5 but what I hate, I do! 16 But if I am doing what I don’t want to do, I am agreeing with the Law, that it is good. 17 But then it is no longer I who am doing it, but the sin that dwells within me. 18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) there dwells no good thing; for the desire for good is present within me, but the doing of it is not. 19 For the good that I want to do, I do not do; but the evil that I don’t want to do, that is what I perform. 20 But if I am doing what I don’t want to do, it is no longer I who am doing it, but the sin that dwells within me.

21 I find, then, this law:6 Evil is present with me, the one who wants to do good. 22 For I gladly concur with the Law of God in my inner man.7 23 But I see another law at work in my members, waging war against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin residing in my members. 24 O wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this deadly sinful body?8 25 (But thanks be to God,9 through Jesus Christ our Lord!) So then: I myself serve the Law of God with the mind; but with the flesh I serve the law of sin.


  1. Lit. Therefore my brothers
  2. Ex. 20:17; Deut. 5:21
  3. Lit. taking opportunity through the commandment
  4. Lit. become death to me
  5. Or practice, accomplish
  6. Lit. the law, the principle
  7. Lit. according to the inner man
  8. Lit. from the body of this death
  9. Some mss I thank God


The Spirit-led Life of the Righteous in Christ

There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you1 free from the law of sin and death. For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did: Sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for the purpose of addressing sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 so that the righteous requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who no longer walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. For those who live2 according to the flesh, set their minds on the things of the flesh; but those who live according to the Spirit, on the things of the Spirit. For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace. 7 For the mind set on the flesh is hostile towards God: It will not3 subject itself to the Law of God, for it is not even able to do soThus,4 those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

But you are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to him. 10 But if Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life5 because of righteousness. 11 But if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, then he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.

12 So then, brothers: We are debtors—not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh; 13 for if you are living according to the flesh you will die. But if by the Spirit you are putting to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. 15 For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading back again to fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption, by whom6 we cry out, “Abba, Father.” 16 The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God; 17 and if children, then heirs as well—heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with him, so that we also may be glorified with him.

Suffering and Glory

18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with7 the glory that will soon be revealed to us. 19 For the creation waits with anxious longing for the revealing of the sons of God. 20 For the creation was subjected to hindrance and defeat, not by its own will, but because of him who subjected it in hope; 21 for9 the creation itself also will be delivered from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 22 For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers the pains of childbirth together until now. 23 And not only it, but also we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit: Even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the adoption: the redemption of our body. 24 For we were saved in hope. But hope that is seen is not really hope, for who hopes for what he already sees? 25 But if we hope for what we’ve not yet seen,10 then with perseverance we eagerly wait for it.

26 And in the same way, the Spirit also helps us in our weaknesses. For we don’t know what to pray for as we should, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans too deep for words; 27 and he who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because he makes intercession for the saints according to the will of God. 28 And we know that all things work together11 for good for those who love God, for those who are the called according to his purpose. 29 For those whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, so that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 30 Moreover, those whom he predestined, he also called; and those whom he called, he also justified; and those whom he justified, he also glorified.

More than Conquerors

31 What, then, shall we say of these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 32 He who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all, how shall he not also, along with him, freely give us all things? 33 Who can12 bring a charge against God’s elect? God is the one who justifies; 34 who is the one who condemns?13 Christ Jesus14 is the one who died—or rather, who was raised, who is also at the right hand of God, and who also makes intercession for us. 35 What then can separate us from the love of Christ: Can tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 36 (Just as it is written, “For your sake we are put to death all day long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.”)15 37 Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 38 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, 39 nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is found in Christ Jesus our Lord.


  1. Some mss me
  2. Lit. are
  3. Lit. for it does not
  4. Lit. And
  5. Or the spirit is alive
  6. Or a spirit of adoption, by which
  7. Or towards, beside
  8. Lit. futility, frustration, worthlessness
  9. Or possibly who subjected it, in hope that
  10. Lit. what we do not see
  11. A few mss God works all things together
  12. Lit. will
  13. Lit. who is the one condemning?
  14. Some mss omit Jesus
  15. Ps. 44:2


Paul’s Love for His Jewish Brothers

I am speaking the truth in Christ—I am not lying, and my conscience also bears witness with me in the Holy Spirit—when I say that I have great sorrow and unceasing grief in my heart. For I could wish1 that I myself were accursed—cut off from Christ—for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh, the people of Israel.2 To them belong the adoption as sons, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the Law, the service of worship, and the promises; to them belong the fathers; and from them, according to the flesh, came the Christ, who is over all: God forever blessed.3 Amen!

God’s Sovereign Grace

Nevertheless, it is not as if the word of God has fallen to the ground, for they are not all Israel who are descended from Israel, nor are they all children simply because they are the seed of Abraham; rather, “It is through Isaac that4 your seed will be named.”5 In other words, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God; rather, it is the children of the promise who are counted as the seed. For this is a word of promise: “At that time I will come, and Sarah will have a son.”6 10 Nor is that all, but there is Rebekah as well, who conceived twins by one man, our father Isaac. 11 Yet before they were born or had done anything good or bad, so that God’s purpose in election might stand (which is not based on works, but rather on him who calls), 12 it was said to her, “The older will serve the younger.”7 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”8

Sovereign Grace Defended

14 What shall we say then? Is there injustice with God? God forbid! 15 For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.”9 16 Consequently, it does not depend on the man who wills, or on the man who runs, but on God who shows mercy. 17 For the Scripture says to the Pharaoh, “For this very reason I raised you up, that I might display my power in you, and that my name should be proclaimed in all the earth.”10 18 So then: He has mercy on whom he wills11 to have mercy, and whom he wills to harden, he hardens.

19 You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who has ever withstood his will?” 20 But on the contrary, who are you, O man, to reply against God? Will the thing formed say to him who formed it, “Why have you made me like this?” 21 Hasn’t the potter a right over the clay, to make from the same lump one vessel for honor and another for dishonor? 22 What if God, desiring to display his wrath and make his power known, endured with great patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction? 23 And what if he did so in order to make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy that he had prepared beforehand for glory— 24 including us, whom he also called, not only from among the Jews, but also from among the Gentiles? 25 As he also says in Hosea:

“I will call them ‘my people’ who were not my people,
and her ‘Beloved’ who was not beloved.”12
26 “And it shall be that in the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’
there they shall be called the sons of the living God.”13

27 But concerning Israel, Isaiah cries out:

“Though the number of the children of Israel be like the sand of the sea,
it is only the remnant that will be saved;
28 for the Lord will execute his sentence upon the land,14
and will do so thoroughly and swiftly.”15
29 Just as Isaiah previously had said:16
“Unless the Lord of Hosts had left us a seed,
we would have become like Sodom,
and would have been made like Gomorrah.”17

Israel and the Way of Works

30 What then shall we conclude?18 We conclude that Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have now attained righteousness—but a righteousness that comes through faith; 31 whereas Israel, pursuing a law of righteousness, did not arrive at that law. 32 Why? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as though it were attained by works. They stumbled over the stumbling stone. 33 Just as it is written: “Behold, I lay in Zion a stone that causes stumbling, and a rock that gives offense; but he who believes in him will never be put to shame.”19


  1. Or pray
  2. Lit. who are Israelites
  3. Or Christ, who is God over all, forever blessed; or Christ—God, who is over all, be blessed forever!
  4. Lit. in Isaac shall
  5. Gen. 21:12
  6. Gen. 18:10, 14
  7. Gen. 25:23
  8. Mal. 1:2-3
  9. Ex. 33:19
  10. Ex. 9:16
  11. Or chooses, desires, wishes
  12. Hos. 2:23
  13. Hos. 1:10
  14. Or earth; lit. execute his word upon the land
  15. Lit. finishing it and cutting it short; Is. 10:22-23
  16. Or Just as Isaiah predicted
  17. Is. 1:9
  18. Lit. say
  19. Is. 8:14, 28:16


Paul’s Heart’s Desire and Prayer

10 Truly, brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God is for their salvation. For I bear them witness that they are zealous for God, but not in accordance with knowledge. For ignoring1 God’s righteousness, and seeking to establish a righteousness of their own, they have not submitted to the righteousness that comes from God. For Christ is the goal2 of the Law, resulting in righteousness for everyone who believes.

Moses Himself Wrote of Christ

For Moses writes about the righteousness that comes through the Law, saying: “The man who practices these things will live because of them.”3 6But the righteousness that comes through faith speaks like this: “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’ (that is, to bring down Christ from aboveor, ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’ (that is, to bring up Christ from the dead).” But what does it say? It says, “The word is near you, even in your mouth and in your heart,”4—that is, the word about faith that we proclaim, that if you confess5 with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10 For with the heart one believes, resulting in righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made, resulting in salvation. 11 For the Scripture says, “Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”6 12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord is lord of all, overflowing in riches to all who call on him. 13 For, “Whoever calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”7

14 How then can8 they call on him in whom they’ve not believed? And how can they believe in him whom9 they have never heard? And how can they hear without a herald? 15 And how can they serve as heralds unless they are sent? Just as it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news of good things!”10 16 But not all have obeyed11 the good news. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our report?”12 17 So then: Faith comes by hearing, and hearing through the word of13 Christ.

18 “But I say, surely they’ve never heard!” On the contrary: “Their voice has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.”14 19 “But I say, surely Israel didn’t know!” First Moses says, “I will provoke you to jealousy by that which is not a nation; I will move you to anger by a nation without understanding.”15 20 And later on Isaiah grows very bold, saying, “I was found by those who did not seek me; I have shown myself16 to those who did not ask for me.”17 21 But concerning Israel he says, “All day long I have stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contentious18 people.”19


  1. Or failing to understand; lit. not knowing
  2. Or end, consummation
  3. Lev. 18:5
  4. Deut. 30:12-14
  5. Or proclaim. Because if you confess
  6. Is. 28:16
  7. Joel 2:32
  8. Lit. will
  9. Or of whom
  10. Is. 52:7; Nah. 1:15
  11. Or heeded, listened to
  12. Is. 53:1
  13. Or about
  14. Ps. 19:4
  15. Deut. 32:21
  16. Lit. was made manifest
  17. Is. 65:1
  18. Or antagonistic, obstinate; lit. contradictory
  19. Is. 65:2


God Has a Remnant of Jewish Believers

11 “I ask then: Surely God hasn’t rejected his people?” God forbid! For I myself am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew. Or don’t you know what the Scripture says about Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel, saying, “Lord, they’ve killed your prophets and torn down your altars, and I alone am left; and now they’re seeking my life”1But what was the divine response to him? “I have reserved for myself seven thousand men who have not bent the knee to Baal.”2 In the same way, then, there is at this present time a remnant according to God’s gracious choice. And if it is by grace, it is no longer based on works; otherwise grace is no longer grace.

What then should we conclude? Just this: What Israel seeks, it has not obtained; but the elect have obtained it, and the rest were hardened. As it is written: “God has given them a spirit of stupor—eyes that do not see, and ears that do not hear—down to this very day.”3 Likewise, David says: “Let their table become a snare and a trap, a stumbling block and their just dessert.4 10 May their eyes be darkened so they cannot see; and may you bend their backs forever.”5

Israel Will Be Grafted in Again

11 “I ask then: Have they stumbled so as never to rise again?6 God forbid! Rather, through their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles in order to provoke the Jews to jealousy. 12 But if their transgression means riches for the world, and their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness!7

13 But I am speaking to you who are Gentiles. Seeing, then, that I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, 14 if by any means I might provoke my own people8 to jealousy, thereby saving some of them. 15 For if their rejection means reconciliation for the world, what will their acceptance be, if not life from the dead? 16 For if the first portion9 of the sacred dough is holy, the lump is holy as well; and if the root is holy, so too are the branches. 17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you—like a shoot from a wild olive—were grafted in among them, henceforth to partake10 of the root and fatness of the olive tree along with them, 18 see to it that you do not brag against the branches. But if you do brag, remember that you do not support the root, but the root supports you!

Let the Gentiles be Grateful—and Fear!

19 You will say to me then, “Branches were broken off so I could be grafted in.” 20 True enough:11 They were indeed broken off due to unbelief; and you, due to your faith, are standing. Nevertheless, do not think too highly of yourself, but instead fear. 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, neither will he12 spare you. 22 Behold, then, the kindness and the severity of God: on those who fell, severity, but towards you, God’s kindness, if indeed you continue in his kindness; otherwise you too will be cut off. 23 And they—if they do not continue in unbelief—will also be grafted in, for God is able graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut out from what by nature is a wild olive tree—and then, in a manner contrary to nature, grafted into a cultivated olive tree—how much more will these, the natural branches, be grafted back into their own olive tree?

The Mystery of God’s Plan for Jew and Gentile

25 For I don’t want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, lest you be wise in your own eyes: A partial hardening has fallen on Israel till the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And thus all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, “The Deliverer will come out of Zion, and he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 27 And this will be13 my covenant with them, when I take away their sins.”14

28 With respect to the gospel they are enemies for your sake; but with respect to divine election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers. 29 For the gifts and the calling of God are without regret or change.15 30 For just as formerly you were disobedient to God but now have received mercy through their disobedience, 31 so now they too have become disobedient, so that through the mercy shown to you they too may now16 obtain mercy. 32 For God has consigned all to17 disobedience so that he may have mercy on all.

Eternal Praise for God’s Inscrutable Judgments

33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and his paths past tracing out! 34 For, “Who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor?”18 35 Or “Who has first given to him, such that he must pay it back again?”19 36 For from him and through him and for him are all things, to whom be the glory forever! Amen.


  1. 1 Kings 19:10, 14
  2. 1 Kings 19:18
  3. Deut. 29:4; Is. 29:10
  4. Lit. a recompense to them
  5. Ps. 69:22-23
  6. Lit. in order to fall?
  7. I.e. full number
  8. Lit. my flesh
  9. Lit. fruits
  10. Lit. and (so) became a partaker
  11. Lit. Well (said)!
  12. Some mss perhaps he will not
  13. Or is
  14. Is. 59:20-21
  15. Lit. without repentance
  16. A number of trustworthy mss omit now
  17. Or imprisoned all in
  18. Is. 40:13
  19. Lit. and it will be given (paid) back to him? Job 41:11


New Testament Priests

12 Therefore I entreat you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice—holy and acceptable to God—which is your spiritual service of worship.1 And do not be conformed to this present evil age,2 but instead be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you can discover3 what the will of God is: what is good and pleasing and fully complete in his sight.

Humble Service with Spiritual Gifts

For through the grace given to me I say to everyone among you: Don’t think of yourselves more highly than you should, but think judiciously, each according to the measure of faith that God has allotted to him. For just as we have many members in one body, but all the members do not have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members of one another. 6 Therefore, having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let each one exercise his own: If it is prophecy, let him prophesy in proportion to his faith.4 If it is service, let him serve. If it is teaching, let him teach. If it is exhortation, let him encourage and exhort. If it is giving, let him do so with sincerity.5 If it is leadership, let him lead with diligence. And if it is mercy, let him show it with cheerfulness.

Attitudes and Actions of the Christian

Let love be without hypocrisy. Detest what is evil, cling to what is good. 10 Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Outdo one another in bestowing honor. 11 Don’t lag behind in diligence, but be fervent in spirit,6 serving the Lord. 12 Rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation, continue steadfastly in prayer. 13 Contribute to the needs of the saints, and be eager to show7 hospitality. 14 Bless those who persecute you: Bless and do not curse.15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. 16 Be of the same mind towards one another: Don’t be proud and high-minded, but associate yourselves with the lowly.8 Don’t be wise in your own eyes. 17 Repay no one evil for evil. Take care to do what is right in the sight of all men. 18 If it is possible, and as far as it depends on you, live at peace with all men. 19 Beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but instead leave room for the wrath of God; for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” says the Lord.9 20 Therefore, “If your enemy is hungry, feed him; and if he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in so doing you will heap flaming coals upon his head.”10 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.


  1. Or reasonable service
  2. Or age
  3. Or discern, approve, demonstrate
  4. Lit. according to the proportion of the faith
  5. Or generosity, liberality
  6. Or possibly aglow with the Spirit
  7. Lit. pursue
  8. Or give yourselves to humble tasks; accommodate yourselves to lowly things
  9. Deut. 32:35
  10. Prov. 25:21-22


God, Government, and the Christian

13 Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities, for no authority exists except by divine appointment,1 and the authorities that exist have been put in place by God. 2Accordingly, everyone who opposes the authorities2 is actually opposing the ordinance of God, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers are not a source of fear to those who maintain good conduct, only to those whose conduct is evil. Do you want to have no fear of the authorities? Do what is good and you will receive their3 praise, for they are servants of God, meant for your good. But if you do what is evil, then be in fear: There is a reason they carry a sword,4 since they are servants of God—agents of retribution—to bring his wrath on whoever practices evil. Consequently, it is necessary to be in submission, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience’ sake. This is why you also5 must pay taxes, since the authorities are ministers of God, constantly attending to this very thing. So then: Give to everyone their due:6 tax to whom tax, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honor to whom honor.

A Time for Love

Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves another7 has fulfilled the Law. For all these commandments8—“You shall not commit adultery, you shall not murder, you shall not steal, you shall not covet,”9 and any others that there may be10—can be summed up in this one saying: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”11 10 Love does no harm to its neighbor; therefore love is the fulfillment of the Law.

11 And you must do all this, recognizing the time in which you live, and that the hour for you to awake from sleep has already arrived; for now our salvation is nearer than when we first believed. 12 The night is far spent, the day is at hand. Therefore let us throw off the works of darkness and strap on the armor of light. 13 Let us walk properly, as in the daytime: not in revelries and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and unbridled lust, not in strife and envy. 14 But instead, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision at all for the forbidden desires of the flesh.12


  1. Lit. by God
  2. Lit. the authority
  3. Lit. its, and so through verse 4
  4. Lit. fear, for it does not bear the sword in vain
  5. Or This is also why you
  6. Lit. what is due, owed
  7. Lit. the other
  8. Lit. all this
  9. Ex. 20:13-15, 17; Deut. 5:17-19, 21
  10. Lit. and if there is any other commandment
  11. Lev. 19:18
  12. Lit. for the flesh, for (its) desires (lusts)


Judgment and Liberty in Non-essentials

14 Accept the brother1 who is weak in the faith, but not with a view to judging2 his opinions.  One brother believes he is free to eat anything, whereas the weak brother eats vegetables alone. He who eats freely must not look down on him who does not; and he who does not eat freely must not judge him who does—for God has accepted him. Who are you to judge another man’s servant? To his own master he stands or falls; and stand he will, for God is able to make him stand.

Some of you consider one day more important than another,3 others consider every day alike.4 Let each one be fully persuaded in his own mind. He who honors a day, honors it to the Lord. Also, he who eats freely, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks; and he who does not eat freely, does not eat to the Lord—and he too gives God thanks. For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself. For if we live, we live to the Lord; and if we die, we die to the Lord. Therefore, whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s. For to this end Christ died and lived again: that he might be Lord, both of the dead and of the living.

10 But as for you, why do you judge your brother? Or again, why do you look down on your brother? For all of us will stand before the judgment seat of God. 11 For it is written, “As I live, says the Lord, every knee will bow to me, and every tongue will acknowledge5 God.”6 12 So then: Each of us will give an account of himself to God. 13 Let us therefore stop judging one another, but instead make this resolve: never to put an obstacle or a stumbling block in our brother’s way.

Self-sacrifice in Pursuit of Peace

14 I know and am convinced by the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean in itself; but if anyone thinks of something as unclean, for him it is unclean. 15 If, then, your brother is thrown into confusion7 because of what you eat, you are no longer walking in love; you must not let your food tear down the brother for whom Christ died. 16 Therefore, do not allow what you regard as good8 to be spoken of as evil. 17 For the kingdom of God has nothing to do with food and drink,9 but with righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 18 For he who serves Christ with this understanding10 is acceptable to God and approved by men.

19 So then: Let us pursue the things that make for peace, and the things by which we may build each other up. 20 Do not tear down the work of God for the sake of food. Yes, all things are clean; but it is wrong for a man to eat freely if it causes someone to stumble.11 21 Indeed, it is good neither to eat meat, nor to drink wine, nor to do anything at all by which your brother might be made to stumble. 22 The faith that you have, have it to yourself before God. Happy is the man who has no qualms about12 what he approves. 23 But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because his eating is not done in faith; for whatever is not done in faith is sin.


  1. Lit. person
  2. Or disputing
  3. Lit. (There is he) who judges a day above a day
  4. Lit. (there is he) who judges every day (alike)
  5. Or confess, give praise to
  6. Is. 45:23
  7. Or grieved, offended, distressed
  8. Lit. allow your good
  9. Lit. is not food (eating) and drink (drinking)
  10. Or in this way; lit. in (with) this
  11. Lit. for a man who eats through a stumbling block
  12. Lit. who does not judge (condemn) himself in (by)


Christ, Our Example

15 Now we who are strong should bear with the frailties of the weak rather than please ourselves. Each one of us should please his neighbor for his good, for his edification. For even Christ did not please himself, but as it is written: “The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me.”1 For whatever was written in former times was written for our instruction, so that we, through perseverance and the comfort of the Scriptures, might have hope. Now may the God of perseverance and comfort grant you to be like-minded with one another2 in accordance with Christ Jesus, so that together with one voice you may glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore receive one another, just as Christ also received you to the glory of God.

Christ, the Servant of Jew and Gentile

For I declare to you that Christ has become a servant to the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises made to the fathers, and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, “Therefore I will acknowledge you3 among the Gentiles; and I will sing hymns to your name.”4 10 And again he5 says, “Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people!”6 11 And again, “Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles! Laud him, all you peoples!”7 12 And again, Isaiah says: “The root of Jesse will come, even he who rises up to rule the Gentiles: In him will the Gentiles place their hopes.”8 13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.

Paul, God’s Apostle to the Gentiles

14 Now I myself am also confident, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, richly supplied with all knowledge, and well able to admonish one another. 15 Nevertheless, on certain points I have written to you more boldly, in order to remind you of them once again. I have done so because of the grace of God given to me, 16 to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God like a priest, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable to him, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 17 Therefore, in Christ Jesus I freely boast about the service I have offered to God.9 18 For I would never dare to speak of anything except what Christ Jesus has accomplished through me to bring the Gentiles to obedience—19 by word and deed, by the power10 of signs and wonders, and by the power of the Spirit—so that from Jerusalem and the surrounding areas, all the way to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. 20 But in so doing, I have made it my ambition11 never to preach the gospel where Christ was already named, in order that I might not build on another man’s foundation. 21 Instead, as it is written, “Those who were not told of him will see, and those who have not heard will understand.”12

Paul’s Plan to Visit Rome

22 This is why I have often been hindered from coming to you. 23 But since I no longer have opportunity for work in these regions, and since for many years I have greatly desired to come to you 24 if and when I journey to Spain, I hope to do so now. For I hope to see you when I pass through Rome, and then, after enjoying your company for a while, to be sent out by you when I depart for Spain.13 25 But now I am going to Jerusalem to minister to the saints. 26 For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make a certain contribution to the poor among the saints in Jerusalem. 27 For it pleased them to do so, and they are indebted to them. For if the Gentiles have received a share in the Jew’s spiritual things, they in turn are obligated to serve the Jews in their material things. 28 So then: Once I have completed this ministry and sealed this fruit to them, I will set out for Spain by way of you. 29 And I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.

30 Now I beseech you, brothers, through the Lord Jesus Christ, and through the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in prayers to God on my behalf. 31 Pray that I might be rescued from those in Judea who are disobedient; and pray that my service to Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints, 32 so that I may come to you in joy by the will of God, and be refreshed together with you all. 33 The God of peace14 be with you all. Amen.


  1. Ps. 69:9
  2. Lit. grant you to think the same with (among) each other
  3. Or give praise to you, confess you
  4. 2 Sam. 22:50; Ps. 18:49
  5. Or it
  6. Deut. 32:43
  7. Ps. 117:1
  8. Lit. the Gentiles will hope; Is. 11:10
  9. Lit. the things towards God
  10. Or to obedience in word and deed—by the power
  11. Lit. of Christ, but thus being ambitious
  12. Is. 52:15
  13. Lit. to be sent forward by you there
  14. Lit. And (now) may the God of peace


Commendation and Greetings

16 I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a servant of the church in Cenchrea, 2 so that you will welcome her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and supply her with any help she may need from you; for she herself has been a helper to many, and to me as well.

Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, who risked their own necks for my life; not only do I give them thanks, but so do all the churches of the Gentiles. Likewise, greet the church that meets in their house. Greet my beloved Epaenetus, the first convert1 to Christ from the province of Asia. Greet Mary, who worked so hard for you. Greet Andronicus and Junias,2 my countrymen and fellow prisoners, who are well-known3 among the apostles, and who also were in Christ before me. Greet Ampliatus, my dear friend in the Lord. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my dear friend. 10 Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ. Greet the members of Aristobulus’ household. 11 Greet Herodion, my countryman. Greet the members of Narcissus’ household who are in the Lord. 12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, diligent workers in the Lord. Greet the beloved Persis, who4 worked so hard in the Lord. 13 Greet Rufus, the chosen5 in the Lord; and greet his mother (who is mine as well). 14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. 16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.

Beware of Divisive Men

17 Now I urge you, brothers: Keep your eye on those who create divisions and obstacles6 contrary to the teaching you received7—and turn away from them. 18 For such men are not serving our Lord Christ, but their own belly; and by smooth talk and flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting. 19 For the report of your obedience has reached one and all, so that I rejoice over you. Nevertheless, I want you to be wise in what is good, and innocent in what is evil. 20 And the God of peace will soon crush Satan beneath your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

Greetings from Paul’s Colleagues

21 Timothy, my fellow worker, and Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my countrymen, all greet you. 22 (I, Tertius, who am writing this letter, greet you in the Lord.) 23 Gaius, who is host to me and the whole church, greets you. Erastus, the city treasurer, greets you, along with Quartus, our8 brother. 24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.9

Concluding Doxology

25 Now to him who is able to establish you by conforming you to10 my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ—that is, by conforming you to the revelation of the mystery that was kept secret for long ages past, 26 but now is made manifest, and, in accordance with the command of the everlasting God, is made known through the prophetic scriptures to all nations for obedience to the faith11— 27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be the glory forever. Amen!


  1. Lit. first fruits
  2. Or possibly Junia (a woman)
  3. Or of note, outstanding
  4. The pronoun is feminine
  5. Or possibly a choice man
  6. Or offenses, hindrances; lit. stumbling blocks
  7. Lit. you learned
  8. Lit. the
  9. Many older mss omit this verse
  10. Lit. establish you according to
  11. Lit. for the obedience of faith

The Word of Life

That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have beheld and handled with our hands—we are writing you1 about the Word of life; 2 and the life was manifested, and we have seen and testify and proclaim to you the eternal life that was with the Father, and that was manifested to us— 3 that which we have seen and heard we also proclaim to you, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and truly, our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ. 4 And we are writing these things to you so that our2 joy may be made complete.

God is Light

5 Now this is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you: God is light, and in him there is no darkness at all. 6 If, then, we say we have fellowship with him but continue to walk in darkness, we are lying and not practicing the truth. 7 But if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son continually cleanses us from all sin. 8 If we say we have no sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us. 9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just3 to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 10 If we say we have not sinned, we are making him a liar, and his word is not in us.


  1. See v. 4, 2:1, 7, 12, etc.
  2. Some mss your
  3. Or righteous


An Advocate with the Father

My little children, I am writing you these things so that you will not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an Advocate1 with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. 2 And he himself is the propitiation2 for our sins, and not for ours alone, but also for those of the whole world.3 3 And this is how we know we have come to know him: if we keep his commandments. 4 He who says, “I’ve come to know him” but doesn’t keep his commandments—he is a liar, and the truth is not in him. 5But whoever keeps his word—truly, in him the love of God has been perfected. This is how we know we are in him: 6 He who says he abides in him should also walk just as he walked.

A Commandment New and Old

7 Beloved friends, I am not writing you a new commandment, but an old one, a commandment you’ve had from the very beginning; the old commandment is the message4 that you heard. 8 On the other hand, I am indeed writing you a new commandment, one that is true in him and in5 you, because the darkness is passing away and the true light is already shining. 9 He who says he is in the light but hates his brother is in the darkness, and has been even until now. 10 He who loves his brother abides in the light, and in him there is no cause for stumbling. 11 But he who hates his brother is in the darkness, and walks in the darkness, and has no idea where he is going, because the darkness has blinded his eyes.

Comfort and Admonition for God’s Family

12 I am writing to you, little children, because your sins have been forgiven you for his name’s sake. 13 I am writing to you, fathers, because you have come to know him who has been from the beginning. I am writing to you, young men,
 because you have triumphed over the evil one.
 14 I have written to you, children, 
because you have come to know the Father. I have written to you, fathers,
 because you have come to know him who has been from the beginning.
 I have written to you, young men,
 because you are strong, and the word of God abides in you, 
and you have triumphed over the evil one.

15 Do not love the world, or the things that are in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 16 For all that is in the world—the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the boastful pride of life—does not come from the Father, but from the world. 17 And the world is passing away, together with its lust; but he who does the will of God abides forever.

Perils of the Last Hour

18 Children, it is the last hour; and just as you have heard that the antichrist is coming, so also many antichrists have now arrived on the scene, by which we know it is indeed the last hour. 19 They went out from us, but they never belonged to us; for if they had truly belonged to us, they would have continued with us. But they went out so as to be exposed: to make it clear that none of them belong to us.6 20 But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and you all have knowledge.7 21 I haven’t written you because you don’t know the truth, but because you do know it, and because8 no lie comes from the truth.9 22 Who is a liar, if not he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist: he who denies both the Father and the Son. 23Anyone who denies the Son is also without the Father; he who confesses the Son has the Father as well.

24 As for you, let what you heard from the beginning abide in you. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, you also will abide in the Son and the Father. 25 And this is the promise that he himself gave to us: eternal life.

26 I have written these things to you because of those who would lead you astray.10 27 But as for you, the anointing that you received from him abides within you,11 so that there is12 no need for anyone to teach you; but as his anointing teaches you about all things—and is true and is not a lie, and just as it taught you at the beginning—you will abide in him. 28 And now, little children, abide in him, so that when he appears we may have confidence and not shrink back from him in shame at his coming. 29 If you know that he is righteous, you also know that everyone who practices righteousness has been fathered by him.13


  1. Greek Paracletos, one called alongside to help
  2. I.e. a sacrifice that secures forgiveness and turns away wrath
  3. See John 11:51-52
  4. Lit. word
  5. Or among
  6. Lit. be exposed, that all of them are not of us
  7. Some mss you know all things
  8. Or that
  9. Lit. is from the truth
  10. Lit. because of (about, concerning) the ones deceiving you (leading you astray)
  11. Or among you (plural)
  12. Lit. you have
  13. Lit. begotten from him. Some interpreters: born of him; but see 1 John 3:9, 5:1


Children of God

Look at the kind of love the Father has granted to us: that we should be called children of God! And so we are. This is why the world doesn’t recognize us: because it didn’t recognize him. 2 Beloved, even now we are God’s children. As for1 what we will be, that has not yet been revealed; but we do know that when he appears, we will be like him, for we will see him just as he is. 3 And everyone who has this hope fixed on him purifies himself, even as he is pure.

4 Everyone who practices sin is also practicing lawlessness; indeed, sin is lawlessness. 5 And you know that he appeared in order to take away sins, and that in him there is no sin at all. 6 No one who abides in him continues in sin;2 anyone who continues in sin has neither seen him nor known him. 7 Little children, let no one deceive you: He who practices righteousness is righteous, just as he is righteous; 8 but he who practices sin belongs to the devil, for the devil has continued in sin3 from the beginning. And this is why the Son of God appeared: in order to destroy the works of the devil. 9 No one fathered by God practices sin, for his seed4 abides within him; and he cannot continue in sin, because he has been fathered by God.5

Marks of the Believer 

10 This is how the children of God and the children of the devil become evident: Anyone who doesn’t practice righteousness is not from God; neither is he who doesn’t love his brother. 11 For this is the message you have heard from the beginning: that we should love one another— 12 unlike Cain, who belonged to the evil one, and who slew his brother. And why did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, whereas his brother’s were righteous. 13 Brothers, don’t be surprised if the world hates you. 14 We know that we have passed from death to life because we love the brotherhood.6 He who does not love abides in death. 15 Everyone who hates his brother is a murderer,7 and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him. 16 This is how we have come to know what love is: He himself laid down8 his life for us. And we too should lay down our lives for the brotherhood.

Action and Assurance

17 But whoever has this world’s goods, and sees his brother in need, and then withholds his compassion9 from him—how can the love of God be abiding in him? 18 Little children, let us not love in word or tongue, but in deed and truth. 19 And in so doing we will know that we belong to the truth, and will assure our hearts before him; 20 for we know that whenever our heart condemns us, God is greater than our heart, and that he knows all things. 21 Beloved, if our heart does not condemn us, we have confidence before10 God; 22 and whatever we ask, we receive it from him, because we keep his commandments and do the things that are pleasing in his sight. 23 And this is his commandment, that we believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and that we love one another, just as he commanded us.11 24 Now he who keeps his commandments abides in God, and God in him. And this is how we know that he abides in us: We know it by the Spirit whom he has given to us.


  1. Lit. And
  2. Lit. All who abide in him do not sin
  3. Lit. for the devil sins
  4. I.e. God’s seed
  5. See note 13, chapter 2
  6. Lit. brothers
  7. Lit. manslayer
  8. Lit. love, that (because) he laid down
  9. Lit. closes his inward parts from him
  10. Lit. to, towards
  11. Lit. he gave a commandment to us
  12. Lit. abides in him, and he in him


Testing the Spirits

4 Beloved, don’t believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see if they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. 2 This is how you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, 3 whereas every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. Indeed, that is the spirit of the antichrist: You1 have heard that it is coming, and even now it is already in the world. 4 Little children, you are from God; and you have overcome them, for greater is he who is in you than he who is in the world. 5 They are from the world, so they speak from the world’s point of view,2 and the world listens to them. 6 We are from God: He who knows God listens to us, whereas he who is not from God does not listen to us. This is how we recognize the spirit of truth and the spirit of error.

Knowing the God of Love

7Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God; and everyone who loves has been fathered by God, and knows God. 8 He who does not love, does not know God, for God is love. 9 This is how the love of God was displayed among us:3 He sent4 his uniquely begotten Son into the world so that we might live through him. 10 In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation5 for our sins. 11 Beloved, if God so loved us, we also should love one another.

12 No one has seen God at any time; but if we love one another, God abides in us, and his love has been perfected in us. 13 This is how we know we are abiding in him, and he in us: because he has given us of his Spirit. 14 And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son to be the Savior of the world. 15 Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God. 16 And we have come to know and trust6 the love that God has for us. God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God in him. 17 That is how love is perfected among us,7 so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment; for just as he is, so too are we in this world. 18 There is no fear in love, but perfect love drives out fear; for fear involves punishment,8 and he who fears has not been perfected in love. 19 We love because he first loved us. 20 If someone says, “I love God,” but hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who doesn’t love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he hasn’t seen.9 21 Moreover, we have this command from him, that he who loves God must love his brother as well.


  1. Lit. antichrist, which
  2. Lit. they speak from the world
  3. Or within us (in our case)
  4. Lit. God has sent
  5. See note on 2:2
  6. Or believe
  7. Lit. with us
  8. Or brings torment; lit. has punishment (torment)
  9. Some mss how can he love God whom he has not seen?


Faith, Love, and Obedience

5 Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ has been fathered by God; and everyone who loves the Father1 who begot, also loves the child begotten2 by him. 2 This is how we know that we love the children of God: when we love God and keep his commandments. 3 For this is true love for God,3 that we keep his commands; and his commands are not burdensome. 4 For all who have been fathered by God overcome the world. And this is the victory that has overcome the world: our faith. 5 Who, then, can overcome4 the world, except he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?

The Manifold Testimony of God

6 He5 is the one who came through water and through blood: Jesus Christ. He did not come by the water alone, but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies to this, because the Spirit is the truth. 7 For there are three that testify: 8 the Spirit, the water, and the blood. And the three testify as one.6 9 If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater. For this is the testimony of God: that he himself has testified about his Son. 10 He who believes in the Son of God has the testimony within himself. But he who does not believe God has made him a liar, because he has not believed the testimony that God has given concerning his Son. 11 And this is the testimony: that God has given us eternal life, and that this life is in his Son. 12 He who has the Son has this7 life; but he who does not have the Son of God does not have this life.

Confidence in Prayer

13 I have written these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, so that you may know you have eternal life. 14 And this is the confidence we have towards him: If we ask anything that accords with his will, he hears us. 15 And if we know he hears us in whatever we ask, we also know we have the requests we have made of him.

16 If anyone sees his brother committing a sin that does not lead to death,8 he should ask, and God9 will give him life—that is, to those whose sin does not lead to death. There is sin10 that leads to death; I am not saying he should petition God concerning that. 17 All unrighteousness is sin, but there is sin that does not lead to death.

The Manifold Knowledge of the Saints

18 We know that no one fathered by God practices sin, but that he who was fathered by God keeps him,11 so that the evil one cannot take hold of him.12 19 We know that we are from God, and that the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. 20 And we know that the Son of God has come and given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true. And we are in him who is true by being in his Son, Jesus Christ. This13 is the true God and eternal life.

21 Little children, keep yourselves from idols!


  1. Lit. him
  2. Lit. him who was begotten
  3. Lit. is the love of God
  4. Lit. And who is it who overcomes
  5. Or This
  6. Lit. and the three are unto the one
  7. Lit. the
  8. Or result in death; lit. sinning a sin not towards (to) death
  9. Lit. he
  10. Or a sin (also v. 17)
  11. Some mss he who has been fathered by God keeps himself
  12. Lit. and the evil one does not take hold of (cling to) him
  13. Or He

In his letter to the Roman Christians, the apostle Paul declares, “As many as are led by the Spirit, these are the sons of God” (Rom. 8:14). What a thought! Can it really be that part of our inheritance in Christ is to be guided by the Spirit of God in all our decisions, just as the Lord Jesus was? Paul certainly seemed to think so! Moreover, as we read through the book of Acts, we find that for the early Church this was indeed the case: In manifold ways, God graciously guided His people in the fulfillment of their mission, and in so doing provided helpful instructions and examples for us to follow. The purpose of this essay is to spotlight the main ways in which God guides his New Covenant children, and to illustrate them from the Book of Acts. May this brief meditation enrich your confidence for walking with him!


How exactly does God guide his New Covenant children? Here are ten answers, drawn from the Book of Acts.

He guides us personally

In OT times God usually guided his people through appointed leaders such as judges, priests, prophets, kings, etc. To be sure, his Spirit worked in the hearts of all his OT elect, giving them ears to hear what their leaders were saying. But it was a rare privilege for God to speak personally to the OT saints. For this reason, the writing prophets looked forward to a happy day when God would speak directly to ALL his people (Numbers 11; Jeremiah 31:31f; Joel 2:28f). And according the Lord Jesus, that day has come, for now ALL his Spirit-filled sheep hear his voice and follow him (John 5, 10:26-27, 16:13)!

He guides us inwardly

In OT times God guided his people by a pillar of cloud and fire, the Scriptures, the Urim and the Thummim, the casting of lots, and the words of specially appointed leaders. These were outwards means of guidance; the people had little or no expectation of God speaking to them inwardly. Now, however, under the New Covenant, outward means of guidance have been replaced by inward; now God is committed to guiding each individual Christian by the indwelling Holy Spirit. Again, this great boon was promised in OT times (Isaiah 30, 54; Jeremiah 31; Ezekiel 36-37, etc.), and fulfilled under the New Covenant in Christ (John 16:13a; 1 John 2:26; Romans 8:14; Colossians 1:9; 1 John 2:25-26).

He uses chosen instruments

As in OT times, so in the New: God is pleased to use various instruments to guide his people personally and inwardly. But since those instruments are unique to our day, it very much behooves us to know what they are, lest we turn to OT instruments for NT guidance! The Urim and Thummin are gone (or rather, they now live inside us!). No longer are we to cast lots or look to special leaders. Rather, we are to the look to the Lord himself, and to expect him to guide us according to the uniquely NT methods he has chosen.

Here is my view of what they are, illustrated from the book of Acts.

He guides us through the Scriptures

This is by far the single most important means of NT guidance. As we read the Bible, and especially the NT, the Holy Spirit illuminates and internalizes the Word of God. It becomes our internal guidance system. Slowly but surely, Christ is formed in us (Galatians 4:19), we receive the mind of Christ (1 Cor;inthians 2:16), and our senses are trained to distinguish between good and evil (Hebrews 5:14). The result: As we walk through life and face various decisions great or small, the Holy Spirit uses the Scriptures (or Scripture-formed intuitions) to guide us. As a rule we are barely conscious of his activity, but the Spirit and the Word are at work, nonetheless. Accordingly, it is written that the early Christians devoted themselves to the apostles doctrine (Acts 2:42). Paul commended the Ephesians to God, and to the Word of his grace, which was able to build them up in their most holy faith and give them an inheritance among those who are sanctified (Acts 20). It is, then, vital that each of us has a daily quiet time; that fathers and mothers lead their children in family devotions; and that we seize every opportunity to hear, ponder, and discuss the Word of God. In so doing, we are letting the Spirit internalize God’s premier guidance system! It is the plain sense of Scripture that marks for us the path of duty, and that stands as final arbiter over every other form of spiritual guidance (Galatians 1:8).

He guides us through special promptings of the Spirit

From time to time, Christians “feel impressed” by the Spirit to do this, that, or the other thing. Such experiences are biblical. Certainly we see them in the life of our Lord, who spoke of doing only those things He saw his Father doing. We also see them in Acts. When Peter beheld the lame man at the Beautiful Gate, he was prompted to speak a word of healing to him (Acts 3). When Paul observed all the idols in the marketplace of Athens, his spirit was provoked within him and he addressed the Athenians boldly (Acts 17). In Acts, such promptings are styled as “little in-fillings” of the Spirit. Peter, “filled with the Spirit”, addressed the rulers of Israel; Paul, “filled with the Spirit”, rebuked wicked Elymas (Acts 4, 13). All forms of divine guidance are supernatural, but special in-fillings of the Spirit feel a little more supernatural than others!

He guides us through open and closed doors

Christians understand that God is the High King of Providence; that he is causing ALL THINGS to work together for the good of His people who love Him (Romans 8). Accordingly, when faced with a decision, they seek the Spirit’s help in discerning whether or not God has arranged their circumstances in such a way as to favor the decision or discourage it. It is written that the exalted Lord set before the Philadelphian church an open door that no one could shut; doubtless they walked right through it (Rev. 3:8)! In Acts, the Christians in Antioch rejoiced that God had opened a door to faith among the Gentiles (Acts 14:24). In watching for open doors, we must also watch for joy and liberty from the Spirit to go through them; inward affirmation and outward opportunity must go hand in hand. By means of an earthquake, God opened the door of the prison in Philippi, but Paul declined to go through it, lest the jailer be executed. Rather, he waited till the jailer, newly converted, ushered him through the door himself (Acts 16)!

He guides us through counsel and consensus

Because of immaturity, residual sin in our members, or the opposition of powers and principalities, some decisions are beyond us. In such cases, God encourages us to seek the counsel of other more mature believers who know and care for us (Proverbs 11:14, 15:22). Moreover, if we have sought advice from a number of believers, and all agree as to the proper course of action, it would be wise indeed to listen hard (Matthew 18:19)! This principle is beautifully illustrated in the Jerusalem Council, at which the leaders of the infant Church had to decide whether the Gentiles must obey the Mosaic Law. Having “taken counsel” with one another in a lively discussion, they finally came to a unanimous decision on the proper course of action, a course that seemed good both to them and to the Holy Spirit. Such Spirit-wrought unity is extremely valuable for discerning the will of God in difficult situations. It should be noted, however, that on rare occasions God calls a believer to stand alone in a chosen course of action, even in the face of good, united counsel to the contrary (Acts 21).

He guides us with bolts of lightning

Though the Spirit normally uses the Scriptures, inward promptings, circumstances, and counsel and consensus to guide us, he sometimes uses what I like to call bolts of lightning: special, highly supernatural forms of guidance. We observe them all in the book Acts:

  1. Dreams: Promised to NT believers (Acts 2), and apparently experienced by Paul at Troas (Acts 16)
  2. Visions: Seen by Ananias at Damascus (Acts 9), and Peter at Caesarea (Acts 10)
  3. Audible Voice of God: Heard by Saul at his conversion (Acts 9)
  4. Angelic Visitations: Experienced by Philip on the road to Gaza (Acts 8), and Peter in jail in Jerusalem (Acts 12)
  5. Prophets: The prophets gathered for prayer at Antioch (Acts 13); the prophecies of Agabus (Acts 11, 21)

It is important to understand that bolts of lightning are not God’s normal method of spiritual guidance; if we believe they are, we will certainly experience great frustration in our Christian life. Possibly, such things were more frequent in the days of the early Church, when the NT Scriptures were not yet complete and God was specially authenticating the ministry of the apostles. In any case, it is clear from the NT that God means believers to be guided primarily by the four methods mentioned above. That said, I find nothing in the NT even to suggest that God cannot or will not use bolts of lightning to guide his children. To shut ourselves off from the very possibility of such things is to say “No” where God has said “Yes,” and so to risk grieving the Spirit by a lack of openness to certain special adventures that the Lord may have for us in our walk with him!

He guides us by the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus

Every divinely ordained method of spiritual guidance can be counterfeited or contested by Satan’s powers and principalities. The devil can quote Scripture, burden us with dark impressions, give false readings of our circumstances, poison our minds against the counsel of the brethren (or poison the counsel itself), and feed us with lying dreams, visions, angelic visitations, and prophecies. For this reason, it is vital that God’s people learn to shield themselves from counterfeit guidance, not only by consulting the Scriptures, but also by maintaining a high view of God’s goodness; of the kind and loving way in which he is committed to leading his dear children along.

Over and again the NT reminds us of this liberating truth. The law of the Spirit of LIFE in Christ Jesus has set us free from the law of sin and death (Romans 8). Where the Spirit of the Lord is there is LIBERTY (2 Corinthians 3). The LOVE of Christ controls, constrains, and compels us (2 Corinthians 5). We must let the PEACE of God rule (i.e., serve as an umpire) in our hearts (Colossians 3:15). The wisdom (and the guidance) that comes from above is first of all PURE (James 3:13f). God has written—and today speaks—so that our JOY may full (1 John 1:4). And the list goes on!

One big reason we are so often led astray is that in our frailty we listen to voices from the dark side. Having a low view of God’s kindness, and of his immutable love for every son and daughter in the Beloved, we yield to Satan’s flaming arrows aimed at our flesh: doubt, fear, guilt, compulsion, anger, vain ambition, lust, and more. What do all these things have in common . . . besides that they result in terrible decisions? They are NEGATIVE, dealing out death. What do love, joy, liberty, and peace have in common? They are POSITIVE, bringing life. So then, if we deliberately embrace a Principle of Positivity—refusing to be led by negative inputs, but standing firm in our faith that a good and loving God is committed to leading us by positive inputs—we shall make great strides in our joyful, Spirit-led walk with the Lord (Philippians 4:8-9). 1

He guides us as we do our part in the process

Paul writes that the Spirit within us moves us to will and to work for God’s good pleasure. This implies that in our quest for good decision-making we have a simple but important role to play. We must meditate regularly on the Word of God, and teach it to our children. We must obey it implicitly. We must pray to God for special wisdom, and trust that he will indeed give it to us. We must wait patiently till it comes, and, if necessary, be humble enough to ask for godly advice while we wait. And above all, we must watch: watch for the joyful, peaceful, liberating, life-giving witness of the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Christ, who, in one precious way or another, lovingly whispers in our ears, “This is the way, walk ye in it!”

“But thanks be to God, who always leads us in triumph in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma of Him in every place!”


  1. True conviction of sin, wrought by the Holy Spirit, comes with godly sorrow, and is always a positive, life-giving experience. It is worlds apart from the condemnation and false guilt that control so much of our thinking, praying, and deciding. Alas, it is too true that Christians can sometimes resist the Spirit of conviction, and so bring chastening upon themselves until, humbled and broken, they finally yield to God, only to discover that, in perfect love, he has been there all along! (Romans 8:1f; 2 Corinthians 9:7f; Hebrews 12:1f)

Note: The following essay is an excerpt from my book, The High King of Heaven: Discovering the Master Keys to the Great End Time Debate. As the title indicates, my theme here is the coming of the Kingdom; the way it enters history, and the the stages in which it continues to enter history until the universe, life, and man reach the Final State in the World to Come.

I regard this as the single most helpful chapter in my book. I believe it shows conclusively that the Kingdom of God enters the world in two simple stages. The first I call The Kingdom of the Son. The second I call The Kingdom of the Father (or the World to Come). The two are separated by a single Consummation at the Parousia, or Second Coming, of Christ. Thus, the essay is an effort to show that the Amillennial eschatology of the ancient Catholic Church and the classic Protestant Reformation is indeed the true teaching of the Bible.

If you have not already done so, please read my essay, The Good News of the Kingdom. Then you’ll be ready to read this (long) essay with maximum profit. I sincerely hope it will enhance your understanding and enjoyment the Church’s one true Blessed Hope, the coming again in glory of the High King of Heaven!


The Coming of the Kingdom

Earlier in our journey, we heard the Herald of the Kingdom teach on the nature of the Kingdom. Now, after plumbing his answer to the biblical depths, we are ready to sit at his feet once again and hear him on the temporal structure of the Kingdom. That is, we want to learn how Jesus saw the coming of the Kingdom. Did he think of the Kingdom as being present in his earthly ministry, or as yet to come? And if yet to come, did he see it as coming in stages? And if in stages, how many? And if in many, what are the distinctive characteristics of each?

Along the way we have briefly touched on these matters. From time to time I suggested that Christ and his apostles understood the Kingdom as coming in two simple stages. Now, however, we must find out if this is so. And as we begin our investigation, I would invite you to pay the closest possible attention. For unless I am very much mistaken, this question of the coming of the Kingdom is decisive for a proper understanding of biblical cosmic eschatology. In other words, it is the one question whose answer will fling open the doors to the truth about the Kingdom of God, the Millennium, and the Consummation. It is the one question that—more than any other—will determine the victor in the Great End Time Debate.

The Mysteries of the Kingdom

We begin with what I regard as the single most important body of eschatological teaching in the entire NT: Jesus’ discourse on the mysteries of the Kingdom of God (Matthew 13; Mark 4). Its importance is evident from several key characteristics. First, it is a didactic bloc of teaching: Here Christ is not simply referencing the Kingdom, but pointedly instructing his NT scribes as to its very nature and structure. Secondly, it is a lengthy bloc of teaching (the second of five such lengthy blocs found in Matthew’s gospel). Thirdly, it is a focused bloc of teaching, devoted entirely to the theme of the Kingdom. Fourthly, it is a foundational bloc of teaching, clearly setting the stage for all further dominical and apostolic remarks about the Kingdom and the Consummation. And finally, it is a dominical bloc of teaching, flowing from the lips of the incarnate Christ himself, and therefore clearly of special importance in determining the framework for all further NT instruction on this theme. Here, then, we need to listen and listen hard, if ever we hope to arrive at a sound understanding of the Kingdom of God.

Much as I wish we could devote an entire chapter to these rich texts, limitations of time and space preclude it. We can, however, get to the heart of things with a short survey. Therefore, in what follows I will briefly introduce Jesus’ teaching, take a close look at what I regard as the single most important parable of the Kingdom, give the gist of all the rest, and then conclude by summarizing the key mysteries of the Kingdom here unveiled. Before plunging in, you may wish to read these passages once again. After that, please keep your Bible open, as we dig into these rewarding texts together.

Mysteries and Parables (Matthew 13:1-17; Mark 4:10-12)

The Lord’s instruction on the mysteries of the Kingdom began with his telling the assembled multitudes a parable, the Parable of the Sower (Matthew 4:1-9; Mark 4:1-9). Since all alike were mystified as to its meaning, his disciples later came to him privately, asking him to explain the teaching, and also why he chose to clothe it in parabolic language. His response should be deeply affecting to all Christians: “To you it has been given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven; but to them it has not been given” (Matthew 13:11). Since this brief word sets the stage for all that is to come, we do well to spend some time with it. Two key points may be made.

First, in this special season of teaching on the Kingdom, Christ’s main purpose was to initiate his disciples into the “mysteries” of the Kingdom of heaven. As we saw earlier, throughout the NT a mystery is defined as “an open secret,” a divine truth formerly hidden or concealed, but now brought out into the open by divine revelation. Such is the case here. As Matthew himself remarks, Jesus was “ . . . uttering things kept secret from the foundation of the world” (Matthew 13:34-35).

Thus, with respect to the truth of the Kingdom, Jesus knows his disciples are in the dark. Yes, they have read and heard about the Kingdom in the OT, but they have not yet understood it. Why? Because they have not yet received certain special truths about the Kingdom; truths that will enable them to understand its nature and structure; and truths that will empower them, in due season, to shout the good news of the Kingdom from the rooftops (Mark 4:21-23). But now, says Jesus, something great is happening. Through his Messianic Son and Prophet, God, at long last, is graciously giving these precious truths to his people. To them and them alone he is unveiling the mysteries of the Kingdom. Moreover, in doing so, he is also putting into their hands a set of keys, keys that will open up and unveil the true meaning of all OT Kingdom prophecy.

This brings us to our second point, namely that this precious set of keys is a gift of the sovereign God. In other words, for wise reasons, he is pleased to give it to some and not to others. We see this in Jesus’ day, and we see it in our own. In the days of the Lord’s flesh, God was pleased to give his Kingdom truths to Jesus’ disciples, but not to “those who (were) outside,” to the majority of Israelites (Mark 4:11). True, he did, in one sense, give it to the outsiders. But he gave it only in parables, and did so as a judgment and a testimony against them, because their hearts were dull, their ears deaf, and their eyes closed (Matthew 13:13-15; Mark 4:10-12). However, in the case of the disciples—all whom Christ chose for himself, followed him, and humbled themselves to seek and learn truth from his lips—he gave not only the parables, but also their meaning; a meaning they partially understood prior to his passion, and fully understood after his exaltation (Mark 4:10-12).

Importantly, it is much the same today. Though the NT canon is now complete; though Christ’s own interpretation of (many of) the parables is contained therein; and though his holy prophets and apostles have repeatedly instructed the world as to the true nature and structure of the Kingdom . . . still, all men everywhere remain in darkness unless and until God, by his Spirit, graciously grants them to understand these things. Only thus shall the veil over their eyes be taken away; only thus shall the veil over the OT be taken away (2 Corinthians 3:ff); and only thus shall they behold the saving truth about God’s heavenly Kingdom and his divine Messianic King (John 3:3f).

It is for this reason that our Lord pronounces so great a blessing upon his disciples, saying:

But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. For truly I say to you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see what you see, and did not see it, and to hear what your hear, and did not hear it. –Matthew 13:16-17

How is it that Jesus’ disciples become “scribes”—master teachers—of the Kingdom (Matthew 13:52)? How is it that henceforth they surpass the OT prophets in Kingdom wisdom and understanding? How is it that they can bring out of their treasury things old and new, confidently opening up both OT Kingdom prophecy and NT Kingdom teaching (Matthew 13:52)? It is because God has been pleased to bless them, opening their eyes to see and their ears to hear. This is quite practical for every modern seeker of Kingdom truth. It means that we too must humble ourselves before this sovereign God, beseeching him for the heavenly light by which alone we can see and understand these great mysteries (Luke 24:45; Ephesians 1:15f). Moreover, if and when we do receive this light, it is certain that we must just as passionately thank him for so great a gift; a gift that might not have come to us, but did, because of the exceeding riches of his sovereign grace (Ephesians 1:6-7, 2:7).

The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares (Matthew13:24-30, 36-48)

In search of the mysteries of the Kingdom, we turn first to the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares. It is one of two parables for which Matthew and Mark give us the Lord’s private interpretation. The other, the Parable of the Sower and the Soils, deals largely with the nature of the Kingdom, especially in its first stage. This one, however, deals not only with its nature, but also with its structure. Accordingly, Mathew devotes more attention to this particular parable than to any other. And this is fitting. Yes, it is only a seminal teaching, and therefore requires much fleshing out. But it is also an astonishingly substantial teaching, supplying, as it were, the very skeleton upon which the flesh of all NT eschatology will grow until the whole body reaches full stature. It is for these reasons that I regard it as the most important parable of all.

As to its meaning, the Lord is almost punctilious about spelling out the details of the symbolism involved, obviously desiring his disciples fully to understand every word. This makes it a much-needed bastion of eschatological clarity. Accordingly, there is little need for me to comment at length on what he has already said so well. I will, however, seek to open up the rich eschatological implications of this text by pointing out several of the key mysteries that it contains.

  1. The one Kingdom of God comes in two stages: The Kingdom of the Son, followed by the Kingdom of the Father.

That there is but one Kingdom is clear from verse 38, where Jesus speaks of “the sons of the Kingdom.” As in verse 11, so here: the article is significant, revealing that in the end there is but a single Kingdom of God. How then can Christ speak of two kingdoms: the Kingdom of the Son and the Kingdom of the Father? The answer is simple: The two stages of the one Kingdom share a common essence. Both are spheres of redemption. Both are spheres of rescue and restoration. Both are spheres in which God is directly ruling over his redeemed children. As our study proceeds, we will discuss how the two spheres differ. Here, however, the important point is that in essence the two Kingdoms are simply phases of the one Kingdom. This implies, of course, that in all essentials, the second phase of the Kingdom is the same as the first.

Though the phrase Kingdom of the Son occurs only once in the NT (Col. 1:13), the idea is pervasive. Here, it appears in verse 41, where Jesus states that at the end of the age he, the Son of Man, will send forth his angels to gather out of his Kingdom all things that offend. In the pages ahead, we will have much to say about the characteristics of this (stage of the) Kingdom. Yet even confining ourselves to the present parable, we learn much: it is growing (v. 30), it is temporary (vv. 30, 40), and it will endure until the end of the (present evil) age, when its righteous human subjects shall be rescued from wrath and from “all things that offend” (vv. 41-43).

As for the Kingdom of the Father, Jesus speaks of it here only glancingly. Nevertheless, even from his few words, it is clear enough that this (stage of the) Kingdom is co-extensive with the Age to Come, and is therefore eternal (v. 40). Moreover, in this Kingdom the Father clearly has supreme authority over the righteous subjects of his Son, who are now fully rescued from evil, and fully restored to the glory of God, so much so that they, like him, shine like very sun (v. 43)!

Important as this mystery is, it was not really too mysterious to the disciples. Having wrestled for centuries with the prophetic scriptures, most of the Jews of Jesus’ day thought of the Kingdom as coming in two stages. The first was usually called “the Days of the Messiah,” a period of unknown duration in which the LORD’s Messiah would lead Israel to military victory over their enemies, thereafter spearheading a worldwide revival of faith in Israel’s God. The second, which would be ushered in by the Day of the LORD (i.e., the Day of Judgment upon all nations), was called “the Age (or World) to Come.” This was the final state, the Kingdom in its full and final form. Later we will discuss these ideas at length. For the moment, I would simply stress that in giving his disciples the mysteries of the Kingdom, Jesus did indeed affirm a two-staged Kingdom of God. However, as we are about to see, his view of the nature of its two stages was radically different from that of his Jewish contemporaries!

  1. During the first stage of the Kingdom, the Messianic Son of God reigns from heaven, not earth.

This is without doubt the most mysterious of the mysteries of the Kingdom! Though the OT did indeed contain a few hints of a heavenly Messianic reign, the figurative and typological language of OTKP gave rise, naturally enough, to the expectation of an earthly Messianic reign centered in physical Jerusalem and Zion. Indeed, so strong was this expectation, and so impenetrable the mystery Jesus here begins to reveal, that the disciples were still expecting an earthly kingdom even after their Lord’s resurrection (Acts 1:6)! It was, then, not until the coming of the Spirit that the heavenly Teacher fully opened their minds to see the truth about the purely spiritual reign of him to whom the Father had given all authority in heaven and on earth (Acts 2:22-36)!

In our parable, Christ’s revelation of his soon-coming heavenly reign is given only in seed form. Indeed, it would be difficult for us (not to mention the disciples) to spot it, were it not for a host of rich NT texts that supplement and illuminate it, many of which we will discuss below. Nevertheless, with the benefit of NT hindsight, we can see it here clearly enough.

Our first glimpse of it comes in the fact that Jesus here refers to his kingdom as the kingdom of the Son of Man (v. 41). This title was designed to remind the disciples of the Messianic figure of Daniel 7:13-15. As a close look at that passage will show, this personage is manifestly a heavenly being, ushered upon clouds of glory into the heavenly presence of the Ancient of Days, after which, in heaven, he receives from God dominion, glory, and a universal Kingdom. Soon, Jesus himself will fulfill this prophecy (Acts 2:29-36). Therefore, in what is admittedly opaque language, he begins here to his prepare his disciples to understand his own forthcoming heavenly reign.

The case for this truth is much strengthened when we read in v. 41 that at the end of the age the Son of Man will send forth his angels to effect a final separation of the wheat and the tares (v.30). In the gospels alone there are quite a number of texts that make explicit what remains implicit here: namely, that at the end of the age the glorified Christ will descend from heaven with all his holy angels to accomplish the final Judgment of all sentient beings (Matthew 24:29-31, 25:31, 26:64; Mark 8:38, 14:62). The epistles and the Revelation agree (1 Thessalonians 3:13, 4:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Jude 1:14; Revelation 19:11-16).

It would be hard to overemphasize the importance of this mystery. In one form or another, the Messiah’s heavenly reign pervades the entire NT. All the other parables presuppose and elaborate upon it. Many gospel texts reference and illuminate it. It is first preached and celebrated in the book of Acts. Whole blocs of the epistles plumb its hidden depths. The Revelation is structured around it. Moreover, after finally coming to terms with it, the NT writers find it spoken of in the OT as well!

Why does Christ’s heavenly reign loom so large in Biblical revelation? We learned the answer in our earlier discussion of the Eternal Covenant: It looms so large because it is so integral to God’s eternal purpose and plan.

Think, for example, of God’s eternal purpose to honor his Son. How better to accomplish this than to make him the Redeemer of a whole new world, then raise him from dead, take him up into heaven, seat him at his own right hand, and place the entire universe under his authority and control, thereby making him the High King of heaven and earth?

Or again, think of God’s eternal plan: the heading up of all things in Christ, by which he intends to achieve his eternal purpose. How better to accomplish this than by placing the Holy Spirit under Christ’s authority, so that Christ himself, by the Spirit, and through the preaching of the Church, might apply the redemption that he accomplished during the days of his humiliation; might gather God’s chosen people under his wing, under his spiritual headship; and might prepare them for the Day of his return, when at last he will place all things in subjection to himself, thereby creating a new humanity, new heavens, and a new earth—all for the pleasure and glory of God the Father (Ephesians 1:10; Philippians 2:11)!

Yes, the doctrine of Christ’s heavenly mediatorial reign is important, so important that it must rank as one of the two or three main keys to all biblical theology. To neglect it is eschatological suicide. To understand it at its depths is to resolve once and for all the Great End Time Debate.

  1. During the days of the Messiah’s heavenly reign, the world will be a field of battle upon which two opposing kings, and two opposing kingdoms, vie for the souls of men.   

In explaining this parable, Jesus spoke of two opposing kingdoms dwelling side by side in the world. Such imagery would not have been too surprising for the disciples. After all, had not Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Israel and all her kings all dwelt in the Promised Land, surrounded by hostile enemies for centuries on end? And even now, was not Israel occupied and oppressed by Roman governors and garrisons, whom most Jews viewed as willing (if unsuspecting) instruments of “the wicked one?” Surely then there was no great mystery here!

But indeed there was. For in speaking as he did, Jesus had something far different in mind; something beyond his disciple’s wildest imagination; something profound, ultimate, and spiritual; something of which Israel’s physical warfare in the flesh was but a type and a shadow. What he had in mind—and what he here unveils in seed form—was nothing less than a whole new cosmological paradigm; a whole new way for God’s (NT) people to look at their experience in the earth; and a whole new way of thinking about the earthly consequences of his heavenly reign.

This new paradigm is the third mystery of the Kingdom, just cited above: From Pentecost until the Parousia, the world will be a field of battle upon which two opposing kings (Christ and Satan), and two opposing kingdoms (the realm of the world and the realm of the Church) do fierce battle for souls of men.

In Chapter 6 we discussed these central NT truths at some length. In seed form, they all appear in this parable. Here, Jesus is saying that the exalted Son of Man will soon pour out the Holy Spirit, send his Church into the world to preach the Gospel, and begin to bring his elect to faith, thereby planting them in the field of the world as a growing crop of wheat (vv. 25, 37-38). Meanwhile, the wicked one—the devil and Satan—will continually use false religions, philosophies, and ideologies to gain a following of his own, thereby planting them in the field of the world as a crop of tares (vv. 39-39). Though barely distinguishable physically, these two seeds have completely different and antithetical natures. Yet Christ forbears to judge the tares; indeed, for a season, he very much desires the two realms to interact. In particular, he desires the growing crop of wheat to keep on carrying the Gospel to the tares, so that he himself—from heaven and by the Spirit—may put the tares to the test (John 3:16-21); may enter the Strong Man’s field and plunder his goods (Matthew 12:29); may give the tares a new wheat nature (Matthew 7:15-20; 2 Corinthians 5:17); and may transfer them from the Domain of Darkness into his own Kingdom of light and love (Colossians 1:13). In other words, in order to have the largest possible crop, the High King of Heaven has ordained a lengthy Era of Proclamation and Probation, during which the two crops (realms) will coexist, grow, and interact. But at the end of the age, there will indeed be a harvest: Christ will return to separate the wheat from the tares, and transform the whole world into the glorious Kingdom of God. Then an Era of eternal Reward and Retribution will begin, wherein the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the Kingdom of the Father (vv. 40-43).

  1. The two stages of the Kingdom are separated by a single Consummation at the Parousia of Christ.

With all Israel, the disciples followed the OT prophets in looking for the Day of the LORD; the Day when Yahweh, Israel’s God, would supernaturally break into history, judge the nations, and usher in the Age to Come (Isaiah 2, 13; Joel 2; Zephaniah 1; Malachi 4). In our parable, Jesus confirms this expectation, but also supplements it with at least three new mysteries; three fresh revelations about the true character of the Consummation and the Age to Come.

First, we learn here that the Day of the LORD is actually the Day of the Son of Man; the Day of the Lord Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Philippians 1:10, 16; 2 Peter 3:10). In other words, Jesus here lays the foundation for one of the great “mysteries” of NT eschatology: namely, that it pleases the Father to glorify his Messianic Son by making him the Agent of all the great eschatological acts that will bring Salvation History to its glorious close. For example, here in vv. 41-42 we learn that Christ himself will execute final judge upon men and angels; and indeed that it he will lift the curse from all nature, thereby casting out of his Kingdom all things that offend (Philippians 3:20-21). As we will see later, other NT texts flesh out this picture, portraying Christ as the divine-human Agent of the resurrection, the transformation of the living saints, and more.

Secondly, we see here that the Day of the LORD will occur at the Parousia of the High King of Heaven; at the close of his heavenly reign, when he descends from heaven in power and great glory to consummate Salvation History. Yes, in our present text there is only a hint of this mystery. But as we have just seen, many other NT texts confirm this scenario.

Finally, our text unveils the new truth that the Age to Come is, in fact, the Kingdom of the Father. Throughout the first stage of the Kingdom, the Father exalts and supremely honors the Son. Then, in the second, final, and eternal stage of the Kingdom, it is the Son’s turn to supremely exalt the Father. Later we will go into this subject in greater depth. Here it suffices to conclude by saying that in Jesus’ mind the NT mystery of the Holy Trinity obviously lies quite close to the heart of the NT mysteries of eschatology!

The Gist of the Other Parables of the Kingdom  

To fully grasp the meaning of The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares is, I believe, to receive a precious key to all the rest. Let us therefore take that key in hand and look, ever so briefly, at the other parables of the Kingdom. My goal here is simply to give the gist, or essence, of each parable. Hopefully, these few remarks will move you to further meditation upon these precious eschatological gems.

The Parable of the Sower appears in all three synoptic Gospels, a sign of its great importance (Matthew 13:1-9, 18-23; Mark 4:1-9, 13-20; Luke 8:4-15). Indeed, Jesus himself identifies it as crucial for a proper understanding of the other parables (Mark 4:13). The great mystery unveiled here, and elaborated in the rest, is the distinctly spiritual character of the first stage of the Kingdom. During the days of Christ’s heavenly reign, the Kingdom does not come with observation (Luke 17:20). Rather, it is purely spiritual, completely invisible, and must therefore be entered spiritually and invisibly. How does this happen? As we have already seen, it happens by hearing with faith. Christ, the heavenly Sower, sends his Spirit-led Church into the world to scatter the seed of the Word of God, the Gospel. Satan, the wicked one, opposes her efforts, sometimes successfully (Matthew 3:15). Nevertheless, some seed falls on good soil: the noble hearts of God’s elect, who, amidst much tribulation, bring forth good spiritual fruit with perseverance. This parable is rich with instruction, warning, and encouragement. It teaches Christ’s pilgrim Church the centrality and indispensability of “the foolishness of preaching” for the advance of the Kingdom. It prepares them for the hard fact that not all who hear the Gospel will believe or persevere. But it also assures them that some definitely will (John 17:17; Colossians 1:3-6; 1 Peter 1:23).

Similarly, The Parable of the Mustard Seed assures the saints of the infallible, worldwide growth of the High King’s earthly realm, the Church. Yes, it starts out very small, with the body of a single carpenter from Nazareth being planted, seed-like, into the depths of the earth. But in the end it will sprout and grow to enormous size, extending its branches upward and outward to all nations, providing spiritual shelter and rest for untold multitudes around the world (Revelation 5:9). Thus, in parabolic imagery drawn from OT prophecy, the Lord affirms once again, “I will build my Church” (Ezekiel 17:22-24; Matthew 16:18; John 10:16)!

Much the same message is conveyed in The Parable of the Leaven: Like yeast spreading through a lump of dough, Christ’s spiritual reign will infallibly push its way through the earth until it permeates the whole world (Matthew 13:33). Here, however, we meet a further nuance: Not only does the Kingdom spread infallibly, but also, like the workings of leaven, secretly and mysteriously. On this score, The Parable of the Leaven is virtually identical with The Parable of the Growing Seed, found in Mark’s Gospel (Mark 4:26-9). In both of them, Christ is emphasizing that, despite necessary human labors, his global community of faithful believers is not a creation of man, but of the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive because it neither sees him nor knows him (John 14:17). The saints are to take comfort and courage from this, faithfully scattering the seed of the Word, then trusting the sovereign Spirit to do his secret, mysterious, and infallible work in human hearts until the appointed Day of Harvest (Mark 4:29).

The parables of The Hidden Treasure (Matthew 13:44) and The Pearl of Great Price (45-46) are both designed to communicate the exceedingly great value of the Kingdom for those who find it; a value that will quite naturally be reflected in their willingness “to sell all”—to make every necessary earthly sacrifice—in order to receive and retain it. Note also, especially from The Parable of the Hidden Treasure, how Christ again portrays his Messianic Kingdom as being invisible; as being hidden in the earth, or tucked away like a rare book in the stalls of the great marketplace of ideas that is the world-system. Clearly, this Messianic Kingdom has nothing to do with mountains, cities, temples, priests, sacrifices, or any other institution of the Mosaic Law. Rather, it is an invisible realm of spiritual rescue and restoration; a realm that does not even appear on the radar screen of the world-system; yet a realm profoundly valued and cherished by all who, through God’s sovereign grace, have heard, seen, and entered in.

Finally, we have The Parable of the Dragnet. This appears only in Matthew, where, fittingly enough, it brings Jesus’ discourse on the mysteries of the Kingdom to a close (Matthew 13:47-50). It is one of three parables picturing the Last Judgment as a definitive separation, whether of wheat and tares (13:30), sheep and goats (25:31-46), or good fish and bad fish (13:49). Here again Christ speaks of the holy angels. This time, however, we receive more light on their mission in that Day. First, they will gather in both good and bad; then they will gather out (lit. throw away) the bad. Later we will examine a number of other NT texts that shed more light on this single end-time “rapture” of the saved and the lost. Here, however, we conclude by observing yet again that Christ clearly anticipates a single Consummation. At the end of the age he will come again one final time (13:41). He will send forth his angels to assemble all men and angels before him (Matthew 25:31-32; 2 Cor. 5:10). He will turn away the wicked into hell (13:42, 50). And then, in a glorious new Age to Come, he will cause the righteous to shine forever in the eternal Kingdom of their Father (13:43).

A Summary of the Mysteries of the Kingdom

We are seeking Jesus’ view of the coming of the Kingdom: how it enters and unfolds in Salvation History. Our starting point has been his Discourse on the Mysteries of the Kingdom. Though clothed in parabolic language, it is fabulously rich. Indeed, with a little assistance from later NT texts, we find that it actually contains the whole of Christ’s cosmic eschatology; that in seed form it actually unveils all the essential mysteries of the nature and temporal structure (or coming) of the Kingdom. Let us summarize our findings so far.

The fruit of his ongoing redemptive action in history, the Kingdom of God is essentially a spiritual sphere of divine rescue and restoration, a sphere in which the evil sons of Satan have been supernaturally transformed into the holy and righteous sons of God. This one Kingdom comes in two stages, separated by a single Consummation at the Parousia of Christ at the end of the present evil age. The first stage is the Kingdom of the Son. During this time, the Messianic Son of God reigns from heaven, by the Spirit, over his earthly subjects. His benevolent rule is spiritual, invisible, redemptive, infinitely valuable, and worthy of all self-sacrifice. Amidst perennial conflict with the kingdom of the evil one, it advances spiritually and invisibly by “the foolishness of the message preached.” For this reason, sinners enter it spiritually and invisibly by hearing the Gospel message with faith. When at last the Kingdom of the Son has permeated the whole earth—when the Gospel has reached all nations, and a believing people has been gathered out of them—the end will come. The High King of Heaven will descend to the earth in power and great glory to raise the dead, transform the living, judge the world in righteousness, send the wicked into hell, and cause the righteous to shine like the sun in the Kingdom of their Father. The Kingdom of the Father is the second, last, and eternal stage of the Kingdom. Here God’s benevolent redemptive rule extends to the physical side of the creation, as well. Here all things—both spiritual and physical—become perfectly whole. Here, all things are forever filled with the glory of God.

Crucial Confirming Texts

In our journey so far, I have repeatedly stated that a great many NT texts confirm the view of the Kingdom unveiled in the Lord’s Discourse on the Mysteries of the Kingdom. We have touched on a few already. Now we must look more closely at some of the choicest. My strategy here will be to cite (but not reproduce) the text, and then make some brief observations. Please remember that my remarks will be limited to the topic at hand: the coming, or temporal structure, of the Kingdom. My goal here is simply to show you that all throughout the NT Christ and the apostles envision the Kingdom as coming in two stages only, with the spiritual Kingdom of the Son being separated from the spiritual and physical Kingdom of the Father by a single Consummation at the end of the present evil age.

With all this in mind, let us begin.

The Parable of the Minas (Luke 19:11-27; cf. Matthew 25:14-30)

The Lord spoke this parable to his disciples in anticipation of his imminent departure to heaven. His goal was to secure their faithfulness in Gospel ministry during the entire period of his coming physical absence. In Luke’s version, we read as follows:

He spoke another parable, because He was near Jerusalem, and because they thought the Kingdom of God would appear immediately. Therefore He said, “A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a Kingdom and to return.” (Luke 19:12)

These introductory words provide an eschatological framework for the disciple’s thinking, a theological paradigm that will enable them to persevere in service throughout the long and difficult days ahead. Each word is significant. The nobleman is Christ. The far country is heaven. When he arrives there, he will receive for himself a Kingdom. This is the Messianic Kingdom that the disciples mistakenly thought was about to appear on earth, in Jerusalem. But strange to tell, it is actually a heavenly Kingdom; a reward that God the Father will grant to his Messianic Son of Man; a core element of the great exaltation that God will bestow on him as a result of his humiliation, his arduous obedience even to the point of death (Daniel 7:14; Matthew 28:18ff; Philippians 2:5f; Revelation 5:1f). Importantly, the High King of Heaven will remain in Heaven for a long time: The Kingdom of God (in its fullness) will not appear immediately (Luke 19:11); the High King will indeed return(Luke 19:12), but only after many days (Matthew 25:19). Nevertheless, his coming is sure. Therefore, the disciples must not lose heart or grow lazy. For when the King does return, he will handsomely reward his faithful servants, but slay all the rebels who refused to have him reign over them (Luke 19:27). The former will enter into the joy of their Lord (Matthew 25:21, 23), but the latter will experience only weeping and gnashing of teeth (Matthew 25:30).

We have seen all this before, especially in the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares. Here, Christ once again clearly affirms the central mystery of the Kingdom: The one Kingdom comes in two stages: a temporary heavenly reign, followed by an eternal earthly reign, the two being separated by a single Parousia when the High King descends from heaven to consummate all things in final reward and retribution.

The Upper Room Discourse (John 13-17)

Subtly, but quite substantially, Jesus’ thinking as to the structure of the Kingdom is again on display in his Upper Room Discourse to the disciples. Notably, if fits in perfectly with all that we have seen so far.

His hour has come. His earthly ministry—his humiliation—is nearly complete. Only the cross—the final earthly work of God’s great High Priest—remains (17:19). When it is accomplished, his exaltation will begin. Following his resurrection, he will depart from this world to the Father who sent him, to his home in heaven above (13:1, 33; 16:5). However, he will not enter heaven as he left. Rather, he will return not only as the Son of God, but also as the Son of Man; as the Messiah, God’s Spirit-anointed Prophet, Priest, and King. When he arrives, the Father will glorify him in heaven, even as he so faithfully glorified the Father on earth (17:1, 4). Indeed, the Father will place all things in his hand, giving him authority over all flesh (13:3, 17:2). With that mighty scepter in hand, he will therefore embark on the next stage of his redemptive work, sending the Holy Spirit down to his disciples on earth (14:15-18, 15:25, 16:7). By the Spirit, he will indwell them (14:19-24), sanctify them (15:1f), and empower them to bear witness to the truth of the Gospel (15:26-16:15). Moreover, as they do so, he himself, by that same Spirit, will bestow eternal life upon as many as the Father has given to him (17:2, 20).

Here then is the saint’s pattern of life for the entire forthcoming Era of Proclamation and Probation. Laying hold of all these great provisions by prayer, obedience, and meditation upon God’s Word of Truth (14:21, 16:23-28, 17:17), the High King’s disciples of every time and place will abide joyfully in him (15:1f), serve one another in love (13:1-17), and bravely endure inevitable persecution (15:18-25)—all the while eagerly awaiting their Lord’s return. For in that day, the heavenly King will be as a Bridegroom to his Bride: In a glorious new world to come—an eternal dwelling-place that he himself will prepare for his Beloved—he will receive her to himself, that where he is, she may be also (14:1-3).

The Early Sermons of the Apostle Peter (Acts 2:14-39, 3:11-26)

As in Jesus’ Discourse on the Mysteries of the Kingdom, so here: Peter’s first two sermons to his Jewish brethren in Jerusalem give us the entire NT eschatology in a nutshell. The marvel is that he so clearly “gets it,” whereas only weeks before he most certainly did not. Before, both he and his comrades were wondering if the risen Christ would immediately expel the Romans and restore the promised Davidic monarchy to national Israel (Acts 1:6-8). Now, however, his thinking has completely changed. Now the Spirit has filled him, opened his understanding, and illumined the Scriptures. Now he understands, from those same Scriptures, that the Christ had first to suffer, and then to enter into his glory (Luke 24:26); that it was necessary for him to die, rise from the dead, and be exalted to God’s right hand in heaven, so that repentance and remission of sins could be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem (Luke 24:45-49). In short, Peter now understands that the Messiah’s kingdom—the very Kingdom promised in all the OT scriptures—is heavenly in origin, spiritual in nature, and redemptive in purpose. It is exceedingly abundantly unlike anything that Israel could ever have asked or thought (Ephesians 3:20).

But let us pause to explore these things a little more deeply. We will do so by taking a brief look at each of the two sermons. In the first, the focus is exclusively upon the mystery of the Messiah’s heavenly reign. In the second, Peter again speaks about this reign, but gives us further light on the Consummation that will occur at its end, when Christ returns from heaven to “restore all things.” Thus, between the two sermons, we do indeed behold again the nature and temporal structure of the Kingdom of God; the entire NT eschatology in a nutshell.

  1. The Sermon on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:14-39)

This majestic sermon came in response to a question. Beholding the spiritual fireworks of Pentecost, the amazed and perplexed onlookers asked one another, “Whatever could this mean” (2:12)? Peter was well pleased to tell them.

His answer was straightforward: “This is what was spoken of by the prophet Joel” (2:16). In other words, his hearers were to understand that the events of Pentecost mark the onset of the Last Days: days of the coming of the Kingdom; days of the Spirit outpoured; days of the saints prophesying; days of final judgment looming; and days when men may—and must—call upon the name of the Lord to be saved (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:14-21).

But what was not so straightforward—and what was so totally unexpected—was Peter’s explanation of how and why these events were occurring. His discourse was actually quite lengthy, and had to be, since here, for the very first time, the apostle undertook to introduce his Jewish brethren to the great NT mysteries of the Person and Work of their Messiah. Let us follow him carefully as he does.

Peter begins by pointing to Jesus’ miracles, explaining that God himself granted them by way of divine attestation, seeking to mark out Jesus of Nazareth as his Messiah; indeed, as the (Messianic) Prophet promised by Moses, the Prophet appointed by God to bring the light of his (redemptive) truth to all his peoples, both Jew and Gentile (Acts 2:22, 3:22-23).

Next he reminds them of Jesus’ death by crucifixion, affirming that it was indeed divinely foreknown and predestined to occur, yet a sin of unspeakable magnitude and gravity; a sin for which they themselves were personally responsible (2:23). Here then, in seed form, Peter introduces the Messiah as Priest and Sacrifice for the people of God.

Then, at considerable length, he speaks of the fact of Jesus’ resurrection. First, he shows that it too was in accordance with the prophetic Scriptures (Psalms 19:8-11). Then he explains that it had to occur, since God could not permit death, the penalty for sin, permanently to hold his Holy One in its grip (2:24-28). Here the apostle unveils the perfect holiness—and, indeed, something of the divine nature—of Israel’s Messiah.

In speaking further on this subject, Peter now unveils yet another reason for Jesus’ resurrection (2:29-32). As all Israel well knew, in the writing prophets God had promised that of the fruit of David’s body he would raise up One to sit upon his throne; a latter day King of the lineage of David who would rescue and restore Israel; in short, the Messiah himself. Jesus, says Peter, is that man. And for this very reason, God has not abandoned his soul to Hades, nor permitted his flesh to see corruption. Rather, he has raised him from the dead. And he has raised him from the dead so that he could raise him up to heaven and seat him on David’s heavenly throne! Here we again encounter the greatest eschatological mystery of the NT; the mystery that Jesus himself spoke of in his parables and in the upper room. It is the mystery of the Messiah’s heavenly reign; the mystery that the Messiah does not rule on earth over Israel according to the flesh, but in heaven—and from heaven— over Israel according to the Spirit; over the New Covenant “Israel of God.”

Now Peter reaches the climax of his sermon. In his grand peroration, he accomplishes two things: He fully answers their question about the meaning of the Pentecostal manifestations, and he does so by fully unveiling the (most unexpected) mystery of the Person and Work of Israel’s Messiah:

Therefore, being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this which you now see and hear. For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says, “The LORD said to my Lord, ‘Sit at My right hand, till I make your enemies your footstool.’” Therefore, let all the house of Israel assuredly know that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ, (Acts 2:32-36, 5:29-31).

In these inspiring final words, Peter’s great goal is to supply his audience with all the remaining NT truth they need to do exactly as Joel desired and foretold: call upon the name of the Lord and be saved (2:21). But what exactly is “the name of the Lord?” Peter knows, and has already unveiled it. He has told them that God bore witness to Jesus by various signs and wonders; that he foreordained and brought to pass his atoning death; and that in fulfillment of the prophetic Scriptures, he also raised him from the dead.

Now Peter lays the capstone. He tells them that God has exalted Jesus to his own right hand. As the text itself makes clear, this means far more than simply ascending into heaven. Rather, it means ascending into heaven so as to sit down at God’s own right hand; so as to receive from him (God) all authority in heaven and earth (Matthew 28:18f); so as to receive from him (authority over) the promised Holy Spirit; so as to pour out the Spirit on the nascent Church; so as to move the Church to preach the Good News of salvation, and thereby move sinners to call upon the name of Jesus for that salvation; so as to indwell the Church by the Spirit, and rule over her as her royal Head from heaven above; and so as to continue ruling until, on the Day of the Lord, he returns to puts all his (remaining) enemies under his feet, just as OT prophecy had predicted (Psalm 110:1). In short, God has exalted this Jesus, whom they crucified, to be the divine-human Lord of the entire universe, and to be the Spirit-anointed Christ—the redeeming Prophet, Priest, Sacrifice, and King—of all his people.

In his concluding remarks, Luke comments on the effect of Peter’s sermon, and it is well worth noting what he says (2:37-39). Because the High King of Heaven was much at work by the Holy Spirit, men were cut to the quick and cried out, asking what they must do to be saved. With the words of Joel still in mind, Peter directs them to the Lord Jesus, urging them to repent and be baptized in his name for the forgiveness of sins and the full reception of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Here again we see the distinctly redemptive and spiritual character of Christ’s kingdom: All who believe are rescued from the Domain of Darkness, transferred into the (spiritual) kingdom of God’s beloved Son, and restored to eternal life in the triune God (Col. 1:13). Importantly, this precious promise is not only for Jews, but for Gentiles as well; for all who are far off, as many as the Lord God of Israel is pleased to call (2:39). Well remembering his Master’s words about One Shepherd and one (new) Flock (John 10:16), Peter here speaks of the one new Israel of God, over which David’s Greater Son, seated upon his heavenly throne, will continue to rule until he comes again at the end of the age to restore all things (Acts 5:29-31).

  1. The Sermon at Solomon’s Portico (Acts 3:11-26; 2 Peter 3)

In spirit, content, and purpose, this sermon is much like the one delivered on Pentecost. By supernatural gifts of faith and power, Christ, through Peter, has healed a lame man (3:1-10). The amazed bystanders are inclined “to look” to Peter and John as the agents thereof, but Peter directs their attention instead to Jesus (3:11-12). Even in the days of his flesh, God glorified him (13). Yet Israel denied him, delivering him up to Pilate and killing the very Prince of Life (14-15). But God raised him from the dead, this Living One whose spiritual rule now gives life and perfect soundness even to the lame (16). Yes, this Jesus is the Christ, who, according to God’s predetermined plan, suffered and rose again, all in fulfillment of the OT Scriptures (17-18).

At this point, Peter reaches his goal, and in doing so gives his audience further precious light on the Messiah and the course of his heavenly reign:

Repent therefore and return, that your sins may be blotted out, so that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send Jesus, the Christ appointed beforehand for you, whom heaven must receive until the times of the restoration of all things, about which God has spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began (3:19-21).

Once again Peter bids his Jewish brethren to look upward to Christ, penitently and believingly, so that they may enjoy forgiveness of sins and the gift of the Holy Spirit (2:38-39). Note, however, that in this sermon he speaks for the first time about the course and conclusion of the Messiah’s heavenly reign. So long as God is calling Jews and Gentiles to Christ (2:39, 3:25), heaven must “receive” him: hold him there, keep him there. Happily, throughout this period of physical separation, the High King of Heaven will faithfully refresh his pilgrim people on earth with continuing visitations of his Spirit. When, however, the appointed time comes for the restoration of all things—a restoration spoken of by all the OT prophets—God will send him again to the earth. Why? Elsewhere, Peter gives us the answer: So that Christ himself may fulfill the great promise of the Covenant by creating new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells (Isaiah 65:17, 66:22; Acts 1:11; 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1)!

Here, then, is Peter’s eschatology. Though in need of further fleshing out, it is both clear and completely in line with his Master’s: The one Kingdom of God comes in two stages—a heavenly and an earthly—, with the two being separated by a single Consummation at Christ’s coming again, when he will finally judge, redeem, rescue, and restore all things (1 Peter 1:3-9, 4:7; 2 Peter 3).

The remainder of the sermon contains two or three further points of eschatological interest. In verses 22-23, Peter identifies Jesus as the (eschatological) Prophet promised by Moses of old (Deuteronomy 18:15). His point is that the entire OT prophetic institution finds its fulfillment in Christ, the Messianic Prophet of whom all former prophets were mere types and precursors. Very importantly, this Prophet is speaking right now, from heaven, through the Church, admonishing all everywhere to repent, believe, and turn to him. In other words, the High King of Heaven is also the High Prophet of Heaven, preaching his Gospel to all nations, and urging all to hear him, lest, at the Judgment, they should be “destroyed from among the people” (3:23).

Also, observe in verse 24 Peter’s confidence that all the prophets, from Samuel onwards, “foretold these days.” What days? The days of the High King of Heaven; the days of the Messiah’s heavenly reign; and the days with which he will bring it to close at his coming again. This point cannot be overemphasized. As for Peter, so for all the writing apostles: The sphere of fulfillment of all OTKP is the two-fold Kingdom of God: the Kingdom of the Son, followed by he Kingdom of the Father; the Era of Proclamation and Probation, followed by the Era of Eternal Reward and Retribution. Most assuredly, therefore, the OT prophets do not anticipate an ideal Mosaic theocracy in a future Millennium.

Finally, we note again from verses 25-26 that the subjects of Christ’s Kingdom are not Jews only, but Jews and Gentiles. Yes, God sent Jesus to the Jew first, a great privilege and a great responsibility (v. 26; Matthew 10:5-6, 15:24; Romans 1:16). But from the very beginning he purposed and planned that in Abraham all the families of the earth should be blessed (v. 25; Genesis 22:18, 26:4, 28:140). Soon, Peter himself will watch them come to the Messiah (Acts 8, 10-11). Indeed, soon he himself will be speaking of them as a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, and God’s own special people (1 Peter 2:10). Dwelling as they do beneath the benevolent rule of David’s Greater Son, they—along with their elect Jewish brethren—constitute the very Israel of God (Galatians 6:16).

Paul’s Teaching on the Two Stages of the Resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:20-28)

For clarity, conciseness, and comprehensiveness, this may well be the single most important NT passage dealing with the structure of the Kingdom of God. Many regard it as a bastion of amillennial eschatology, and also as the bane of every premillennial scheme. For this reason, it merits close examination.

A few words about the context are in order. Certain members of the Corinthian church have been denying the bodily resurrection of the dead (15:33-34). Realizing that this heretical tendency strikes at the very heart of the Gospel (15:1-11), Paul mounts a vigorous defense, exploring the resurrection from many different angles (15:12ff). In so doing, he is at pains to provide a chronological framework within which the saints at Corinth are to think about the resurrection. He does so in our text (15:20-28), after which he goes on to speak of other mysteries, including the nature of the resurrection body (15:35-49), the transformation and glorification of the living saints at Christ’s coming (15:50-53), and the glorious finality of Christ’s victory over death in that day (15:54-58). Thus, on the theme of the resurrection, and on the eschatological framework within which we are to contemplate it, there is no more important chapter in all of Scripture.

Let us work our way through this passage step by step, focusing once again on the matter that concerns us most: the coming and structure of the Kingdom.

In verse 20, Paul identifies the risen Christ as “the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.” Just as Israel under the Law was to offer two harvest sacrifices to God, one at the beginning and one at the end of the harvest season, so here: Christ is the first of all God’s saints to rise from the dead, and the One whose own resurrection anticipates and guarantees the full harvest of resurrected saints at the end of the age (Leviticus 23:10f).

In verses 21-22 we learn why the saint’s resurrection is guaranteed: Just as surely as Adam’s sin was imputed to his children, with the result that they all died, so surely shall Christ’s righteousness (along with the merits of his atoning death) be imputed to those who are his, with the result that they, like him, will certainly rise from the head. As the Last Adam, Christ is Head over a whole new humanity; God will deal as faithfully with the Body as he did with its Head (Romans 5:12ff)!

In the crucial verses 23-24, Paul now elaborates, explaining the two simple stages in which the full resurrection harvest is to be brought in. Three discrete events are involved, after which all the saints will have been glorified, and all Salvation History will have reached its ultimate goal.

The first event is the resurrection of Christ himself, stage one of the harvest. The second event is the resurrection of those who belong to Christ, stage two of the harvest, and the stage that brings the harvest to completion. Importantly, this occurs at Christ’s Parousia, when he will also change and glorify the living saints in the twinkling of an eye (15:50-52). Then, because Christ has now gathered the full harvest of the redeemed to himself, the third and final event will occur. Paul calls this “the end” (15:24). In our text, it involves two elements. First, Christ “puts an end to all rule and power and authority.” This is the final judgment, when all human and satanic foes are brought down and banished forever. Next, he delivers up the (completed) Kingdom to the Father. This is Christ’s Kingdom, the Kingdom of the Son. As we shall see in a moment, it includes not only his right to rule (i.e., the sovereignty delegated to him by the Father), but also the realm that he created by means of that rule: his resurrected and glorified saints, along with the beautiful new glorified world they are to inherit. All this reminds us of Jesus’ own teaching in the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares, where he spoke of the Son of Man coming again and casting out of his Kingdom all things that offend, so that in the end the righteous may shine forth like the sun in the Kingdom of the Father (Matthew 13:41-43).

Mindful that this material is breaking new ground, and desiring that the Corinthians better understand the delivering up of the Kingdom to the Father, Paul now backtracks and, in verses 25-28, explains things in greater detail. Observe from what follows how brightly the classic structure of NT eschatology shines forth from this passage!

In verse 25, Paul declares that Christ must reign till he has put all his enemies under his feet. As we learn from other NT Scriptures that cite Psalm 110, he has in view Christ’s heavenly reign, and not, as some assert, a future millennial reign subsequent to his Parousia (Acts 2:34f; Hebrews 1:13, 10:13). Throughout this period, Christ—from heaven, by the Spirit, through the preaching of the Gospel—will himself gather in his chosen people, turning former enemies into present friends by the miracle of regeneration. At the same time, he will also judge his impenitent adversaries, placing them under foot in Hades. And he will continue to do this until the Parousia, at which time he will finally destroy every remaining rule, authority, and power antithetical to his reign (15:24; Luke 19:27). This includes the last enemy, which is death itself (15:26), for God the Father has put all things—even death—beneath Christ’s feet (15:27; Psalm 8:6). Please consider carefully: If Christ destroys the last enemy at his Parousia, how then shall other enemies arise in a millennium subsequent to it, as premillenarians assert?

In passing, we should note that the reference to Psalm 8 is quite significant (15:27; Psalm 8:6). The Psalm itself is a cry of wonder and praise that God has exalted man so highly as to give him dominion over the work of his hands. However, lifting their eyes a little higher, the apostles see here an ultimate reference to the divine-human Messiah (Ephesians 1:22; Hebrews 2:8). As we saw earlier, in the beginning God purposed to make his Son the spiritual Head over all creation. When sin entered the equation, he then set about to fulfill that purpose by making the Son of God into the Son of Man; into the divine-human Redeemer, under whose headship he would place a new humanity and a new creation. Thus, in verse 27, Paul affirms that at Christ’s return God will fulfill his eternal purpose for his Son, placing all remaining enemies under his feet, and all remaining friends under his headship, with the result that all creation will be renewed, perfected, and glorified.

There is, however, one exception: the Father himself. He cannot come under Christ’s authority, since it is by his supreme authority that Christ received the (heavenly) authority that he now has (15:27). Accordingly, it is only fitting that in the end Christ should deliver up to the Father, not only his delegated sovereignty, but also all the (redeemed) things that the Father so lovingly delivered over to him, so that once again God (the Father) becomes the supreme authority over all (15:25). Note carefully from this amazing verse that Christ will deliver up all (redeemed) things to his Father. This is none other than the consummated Kingdom of the Son—a new glorified humanity and a new glorified universe—freely and lovingly surrendered up to the Father, so that in the eternal Kingdom of the Father, he may be all in all.

Summing up, we have found that in this decisive NT text Paul once again represents the Kingdom as coming in two simple stages, separated by a single Parousia of Christ at the end of the age. Moreover, we have seen that this single Parousia is closely associated with a single resurrection of the dead, a single transformation of the living saints, and a single judgment of Christ’s foes. The Parousia is therefore the hub, the fixed center around which all the other elements of the Consummation revolve. For this reason, in 1 Corinthians 15 the classical Reformation eschatology finds an excellent friend indeed.1, 2, 3

Paul’s Prayer for the Ephesians (Ephesians 1:15-23)

Paul’s letter to the Ephesians is an extended meditation upon the mystery of the Church, and upon its place in God’s redemptive purpose and plan for the universe. To read it is to see immediately that the mystery of Christ’s heavenly reign lies at the heart of both; indeed, that it has always been one of the great goals of Salvation History, a goal that has finally been reached, and is presently being fulfilled, now that Jesus Christ is seated at the right hand of God.

Our text—Paul’s majestic prayer for a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of God and his purposes—throws considerable light on these things, supplying yet another NT confirmation of the centrality of the Messiah’s heavenly reign, and of the true structure of Salvation History.

In the preceding verses (1:3-14), Paul has laid a foundation, using a trinitarian framework to unveil the great mysteries of redemption, the core elements of the Eternal Covenant. Before the foundation of the world, God the Father elected a people (to be) in Christ (1:3-6). In the fullness of time, God the Son came forth, taking on human flesh and making provision for their redemption through the shedding of his own blood (1:7). Now, through the preaching of the Gospel, God the Holy Spirit is gathering this people in, sealing them for God’s own possession, and teaching them about the greatness of their inheritance in Christ (1:11, 13). In all of this, God is fulfilling his eternal purpose for his Son: the heading up of all things in Christ, the placing of all (redeemed) things beneath his direct and benevolent rule (1:10). But there is more. The full inheritance is yet to be received. For when at last his Church is fully gathered in, Christ himself will return to complete the redemption of the purchased possession at the resurrection of the dead. When he does, the curse will finally be lifted, and the whole creation will be delivered from its bondage to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God (1:14; Romans 8:18-21)!

With all of this as background, Paul’s prayer begins. He is deeply grateful for their faith (15-16), but he is also keenly aware of their need of further understanding, hope, and strength. So he prays, asking that God will open the eyes of their hearts to see three things: the hope of God’s calling, the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, and the exceeding greatness of his power—the very power that will one day cause them to inherit all he has promised (17-19).

By way of conclusion, he illustrates that power. If ever they are inclined to doubt God’s ability to raise them from the dead or to recreate the universe, let them consider Christ: how God raised him from the dead, lifted him up into heaven, seated him at his own right hand, gave him authority and power over all men and angels, placed the very cosmos itself “under his feet” (i.e., under his control), and—best of all—made him Head, or King, over his Church, and over all things pertaining to her and her welfare (20-23). Yes, in mighty power the High King of Heaven is ruling even now, and will continue to do so until his return, when at last the heading up of all things in Christ will be complete, and the glorious new Age to Come will begin (1:10, 21, 2:7). Let all the saints take heart!

Here, then, is a truly majestic portrait of the exaltation of Christ. Though the language of the Kingdom does not appear prominently, the idea of the Kingdom does. It comes in two stages. The first is the Kingdom of the Son, during which time the Messiah rules over all—both the Church and the world—from heaven on high. The second is the Kingdom of the Father, the glorious age to come. The partition between the two is the Parousia, when Christ himself will accomplish the full redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of the glory of the Triune God (1:12, 14).

Paul’s Teaching on the Saint’s Citizenship in Heaven (Philippians 3:20-21)    

Short as it is, this little passage packs an eschatological wallop. Paul is exhorting the Philippians to walk after the example of the godly, and not like those “who set their mind on earthly things,” whose end is destruction (3:17-19). Eager to secure their obedience, he therefore concludes by supplying the spiritual rationale for a holy life, a rationale that is full of eschatological truth and encouragement:

For our citizenship is in heaven, from which we also eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform the body of our humiliation into conformity with the body of his glory, by the exertion of the power that he has even to subject all things to himself.

Keeping our theme of the Kingdom before us, let us briefly spotlight three important points reflected in this text.

First, the saints are citizens of a heavenly Kingdom. As Paul taught in his letter to the Ephesians, God, by the miracle of regeneration, has brought the saints to life together with Christ, raised them up with him, and seated them with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus (Ephesians 2:5-6; John 18:36). Physically, they may be citizens of Rome, but spiritually they are subjects of the High King of Heaven, citizens of his heavenly realm, who should live as such. Here again we encounter the Messiah’s heavenly reign, the distinctly spiritual Kingdom of the Son.

Secondly, the saints are eagerly awaiting the return of the Savior. That is, they are looking forward to his Parousia, when the spiritual salvation they presently enjoy will be enlarged to include the physical side of creation, and in particular, their very bodies.

This brings us to our third and final point, namely, that at his coming, Christ himself will effect a complete transformation and glorification of the cosmos, thus bringing in the Kingdom of God in its full and eternal form. We see this in verse 21, where we learn that Christ, at his Parousia, will effect two majestic eschatological acts. First, he will conform the humiliated natural bodies of the saints to his own glorified body; that is, he will resurrect and glorify the dead saints, and transform and glorify the living. But secondly, he will also exercise that same power to “subject all things to himself;” that is, he will banish every spiritual and physical enemy from the creation, and create a glorious new cosmos (Matthew 19:28; 1 Corinthians 15:20-28, 50-58). Again we are reminded of the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares, wherein our Lord taught that at his return he would cast out of his Kingdom all things that offend: not only the wicked themselves, but also the physical pain, deformity, and brokenness that so terribly burden the natural world (Romans 8:18-21). We conclude, then, that Paul, like his Master, envisioned the Kingdom as coming in two simple stages, separated by a single Parousia of Christ at the end of the age.

Eschatological Nuggets in Paul’s Letter to the Colossians (Colossians 1:13-14, 3:1-4)

Not surprisingly, the eschatological outlook of Paul’s letter to the Colossians is identical with that of his letters to the Corinthians, Ephesians, and Philippians. It appears with special brilliance in two nuggets that are short enough to cite in their entirety. The first is a familiar friend:

He (the Father) has delivered us from the Domain of Darkness, and transferred us to the Kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. –Col. 1:13-14

The second complements the first, and caps it off:

If then you were raised with Christ, keep seeking the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your mind on things above, not on things on earth. For you died and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, is revealed, then you also will be revealed with Him in glory. –Col. 3:1-4

Here—and in the letter as a whole—we again find the classic NT eschatology. Having chosen a people for his own possession, God the Father has sent forth his Son to live and to die for them, thereby providing a just basis for their redemption (2:14, 3:12). In fulfillment of his eternal purpose (1:16), he has also raised Christ from the dead, received him into heaven, seated him at his own right hand, where he will henceforth serve as cosmic Head, not only over the Church (1:18), but also over all rule and authority, whether human or angelic (2:10). In short, God has made the Lord Jesus to be High King of Heaven and Earth.

In the exercise of this delegated cosmic sovereignty, Christ now sends forth the Spirit into the Church, and by that same Spirit sends forth the Church into the world, to proclaim “the word of the truth of the Gospel” (1:5). As the Colossians—and all of God’s elect in all creation under heaven (1:23)—hear that word, God performs his miracle of regeneration, rescuing them (through faith and repentance) from Satan’s evil kingdom, and transferring them (through that same faith and repentance) into the spiritual Kingdom of his beloved Son (1:13). Because of this gracious spiritual miracle, they come to life with Christ, rise with him, and sit down with him in the heavenly places (2:11-14, 3:1; Ephesians 2:4-6). They now share in the Messiah’s triumphant heavenly reign.

This calls for holiness. Henceforth, their physical life on earth must reflect their spiritual life in heaven. Strengthened by prayer and biblical meditation, they must turn away from earthly things, and keep on seeking the things that are above, where Christ is seated at God’s right hand (3:1). Thus shall they become fully pleasing to the Lord, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God (1:10). Does the world scorn their preoccupation with spiritual things; does it scoff at an invisible King and an invisible Kingdom? To be sure. But let the saints rest assured: One day soon, their faith—and their message—will be vindicated! At his coming, Christ will be revealed from heaven in power and glory. When he is, they too—whether by resurrection or transformation—will be revealed with him in glory (3:4). And when they are, the whole creation itself will be revealed in glory with them (Romans 8:18-21)! As their Master himself had said, in that day, the righteous will shine forth like the sun (and like the Son) in the glorious, never-ending Kingdom of the Father.

The Writer to the Hebrews on the Heavenly Reign of God’s Royal High Priest (Hebrews 1:1-5, 13)

The anonymous author of the epistle to the Hebrews sought to warn, instruct, and encourage wavering Jewish Christians who, for various reasons, were tempted to return to Judaism. Recognizing that a rejection of Christ and the New Covenant would rob them of eternal salvation, he drew upon his vast knowledge of the OT to press home two relevant truths: 1) In and of itself, the OT service of worship, centered around the Tabernacle and the Temple, was altogether inadequate to make sinners right with God; 2) the OT service of worship was typological in nature, pointing forward to the Person and Work of Jesus Christ, who has now fulfilled it and therefore rendered it obsolete. Accordingly, to go back to Judaism is to go against the very flow of Salvation History; it is to repudiate the very Christ and the very Covenant towards which that history ever tended, and from which it ever borrowed whatever efficacy it had. In sum, now that Christ has come, they should not go back, for now that Christ has come, they cannot go back!

Very importantly, in making his case, the writer sheds a great deal of light on our theme: the heavenly mediatorial reign of Christ. Here, however, the emphasis is less upon Christ’s Messianic Kingship, and more upon his Messianic Priesthood. Nevertheless, this extended treatise on the High Priest of Heaven is most useful to us, since it clearly displays the writer’s total eschatological outlook, the very same outlook that we have gleaned from our previous texts.

In a highly condensed form, we encounter it at the outset, especially in the first five verses of Chapter 1. Here the writer’s clear purpose is to display the deity of Christ, thereby sharply distinguishing him from the angels, with whom some of the Jewish Christians were apparently confusing him. To this end, he identifies Christ as “the Son,” and the Son as the (co)-creator of the world (1:2), the sustainer of the world (1:3), and the express image of the Father’s person (1:3). No angel here!

Importantly, he also speaks of the Son as the heir of all things (1:2), the One by whom and for whom all things exist (2:9). But how exactly does the Son inherit all things? Our text addresses this as well: He becomes a man, purges the sins of God’s people, and sits down at the right hand of the Majesty on high (1:3). Yes, in so doing, he inherits a more excellent name than the angels (1:4). But he inherits that most excellent name because he inherits the universe as well! As our text implies, through the humiliation and exaltation of his divine-human Son, God has “begotten” the Messiah: He has fitted him for, and set him in, his great ministry as the High King (and Priest) of Heaven and Earth (1:5). In one form or another, his throne—his universal sovereignty—will endure forever (1:8). In the present stage of his rule, he will sit a God’s right hand until he makes all his (remaining) enemies a footstool for his feet (1:3; Psalm 110:1); until he himself comes again, and folds up both the heavens and the earth like a cloak, changing (i.e., glorifying) them once and for all (1:10-12). Again, let no Christian think of this One as an angel! Rather, let them worship him as the all-sovereign God-Man—and let the angels do so, as well (1:6)!

We find, then, that the standard NT eschatology—the simple two-staged view of the Kingdom—appears in the very first chapter of this epistle. Moreover, it appears repeatedly in the rest of the book. A brief overview will make this important point clear.

As the writer makes his case for the superiority and finality of the New Covenant, he begins by showing that the incarnation of the holy Son of God was absolutely necessary for the salvation of sinful men (2:10-18, 10:5-10); that animal sacrifices—which were mere pictures of Christ—had no intrinsic power to redeem (10:1-4).

But to what purpose was this great sacrifice? The answer must surprise and thrill every godly Jew: Christ died to give all God’s people direct, ongoing access to himself; to give them entrance, once and for all, into the Holy of Holies! How exactly can Christ grant this supreme blessing? First, by laying down his life a sacrifice for sin, and then by entering heaven itself as the High King—and the eternal High Priest—of his people (2:17-3:6, 4:1-5:11). Fully adorned with the infinite merit of his own life and death, he now appears in the Presence of God for the saints (9:24). And wonder of wonders, in doing so, he brings them in with him! Henceforth, they may come boldly to the throne of grace (4:16). Henceforth, they may enter the Holiest by the blood of Jesus, drawing near with the full assurance of faith and a clear conscience (10:19-22). Henceforth, they have come to the Zion that is above, they dwell in the Jerusalem that is above, and they worship in the Temple that is above (8:2, 12:18-24).

But this is not the end of the Good News. For even as the pilgrim Church enjoys refreshing communion with God and Christ in heavenly places, she also eagerly anticipates a Day that is fast approaching (10:25); a Day when he who is destined to come, will come (10:37); the Day when God, through Christ, will once again shake not only the earth, but also the heavens (9:28, 12:26); the Day in which he will remove all that can be shaken, so that only what cannot be shaken will forever remain (12:27). On that Day, Abraham will enter the better country that he ever sought (11:16); Moses will receive the reward for which he gladly sacrificed the treasures of Egypt; and all the other saints, like God himself at the creation, will enter into their everlasting rest (3:7-4:10).

Thus, in Hebrews as well, we find that the one Kingdom comes in two stages—a “mysterious” heavenly stage, followed by a glorious earthly stage—separated by a single, all-consummating coming of the High King of Heaven.

John’s Vision of the Lamb Receiving and Unsealing the Testament of God (Revelation 5)

Here I offer a teaser, but a purposeful one. Later in our study we will look closely at the astonishing structure of the Revelation. As we do, we will see that chapters four and five—John’s vision of the Sovereign Creator and Judge upon his throne, followed by his vision of the Sovereign Redeemer at the Father’s right hand—constitute the core, the theological center of gravity, of the entire book. In particular, chapter 4 establishes the dreadful fact that sinful man stands in desperate need of a Redeemer. Chapter 5 establishes the corresponding—and glorious—fact that the holy God has graciously provided one, who now stands before him in heaven. On the one hand, he stands as a Lamb: alive indeed, but with the marks of his having been slain (5:6). Here is Christ as Priest and Sacrifice, as the High Priest of Heaven, whose work on earth has secured the redemption of God’s people (5:9-10).

On the other hand, he also stands before God as a Lamb having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth (5:6). Here is Christ as the ROYAL High Priest; as the High King of Heaven, having all authority in heaven and earth, and all disposition over the Holy Spirit, so that from his throne above he may henceforth apply the redemption that he secured on earth to his people. As the rest of the book shows, this is precisely what he will do throughout the entire Era of Proclamation and Probation: He will unseal the Father’s last will and testament. In other words, he will take all the judicial and redemptive steps necessary to gather in and prepare His elect for the grand unveiling of the (full) Promise of the Father at the end of the age. As John beheld over and again, this unveiling will occur at the Parousia, when the High King of Heaven descends to the Earth, once and once only, to consummate all things in final judgment and in final redemption, thereby bringing in the saint’s full inheritance, the glorious Kingdom of God.

At the outset of our journey we saw that the Revelation is the one NT book upon which premillenarians base their distinctive eschatology, and by which they challenge the eschatological outlook that so naturally emerges from the many other NT texts we have just studied. However, in chapters 18-20 we will see that, far from overthrowing that outlook, the Revelation supplies what is arguably its single most extensive, intricate, beautiful, and powerful confirmation! In short, we will find that the Revelation is the glorious capstone that seals, once and for all, the body of NT truth concerning the coming of the Kingdom, the shape of all biblical eschatology, and the winner in the Great End Time Debate.

The Coming of the Kingdom

Having closely examined NT teaching on the Eternal Covenant and the nature and structure of the Kingdom, we are now ready to distill what we have learned into a summary of the NT view of the coming of the Kingdom of God. It involves, I believe, three basic stages: 1) The earthly ministry of Christ, during which time the Kingdom is founded; 2) The heavenly reign of Christ, during which time the Kingdom is continually coming into the world; and 3) The Parousia of Christ, when the Kingdom is consummated. Let us look briefly at each one.

Earthly Ministry: Kingdom Founded

By earthly ministry I mean the full scope of Christ’s work during the days of his flesh, from the moment of his incarnation to the moment of death and burial; in other words, the entire spectrum of events and activities proper to the humiliation of the Son of God. As we saw earlier, this humiliation was part and parcel of the Covenant of Redemption, into which the Son entered with the Father before the foundation of the world. In essence, its great purpose was to make provision for the promise of the Covenant of Grace; or, to use the biblically favored metaphor of the Kingdom, to lay a proper (legal) foundation for the coming, building up, and consummation of the Kingdom of God. We can get a better feel for all of this by touching very briefly on certain key aspects and events of the Lord’s life on earth.

Everything begins, of course, with the incarnation of the Son of God as Jesus of Nazareth. Here, God the Father sends the Covenant Provision into the world as the Last Adam, the new Head of a new, elect humanity. Since he is destined to become the Messiah—the Spirit-anointed Prophet, Priest, and King of the people of God—Jesus’ birth is, as Zachariah, Simeon, Anna, and the Magi all well understood, the birth of a great King, the King of the coming Kingdom of God (Matthew 2:1-12; Luke 1:67-69, 2:25-38).

Next is Jesus’ water baptism beneath the hands of John, at which time, in fulfillment of OT prophecy, God the Father anoints the Messiah with the Holy Spirit (Isaiah 42:1f; Matthew 3:13-17). This too is in fulfillment of the Covenant of Redemption, since here the Father equips and empowers the Last Adam for every aspect of his earthly work. Importantly, this anointing neither crowns Christ as King, nor launches his Messianic reign: From his birth, he is indeed already the Messianic King; but, as we shall see in a moment, the actual commencement of his reign awaits his exaltation. So then, the anointing of the Spirit at the Jordan is meant to equip Christ to prepare a people for the eventual coming of his Kingdom, and also to lay a proper foundation for it.

This brings us to his three and half years of ministry, wherein Jesus lived, taught, worked, and finally died as a sacrifice for the sins of his people. If we stand back and survey these years from the point of view of the Covenant of Redemption, we behold their essential meaning quite clearly: They are the years in which the Last Adam fulfills all righteousness on behalf of his people; in which—by obeying the Father’s every command, passing his every test, and complying with his every precept in the Mosaic Law—he (Christ) fulfills the Covenant of Works, thereby earning the prize of eternal life for his own. However, included in these works is the single greatest work of all: his atoning death, by which he satisfies God’s justice and propitiates his wrath, thus making the imputation of his righteousness possible, and the regeneration, justification, and reconciliation of his people sure (Romans 3:21-26, 4:1f, 5:1f, 8:29ff; 2 Corinthians 5:21). Thus, by his active and passive obedience throughout the days of his humiliation, Christ fulfills and abolishes the Mosaic Law, introduces the New and Eternal Covenant, and secures its great promise: eternal life under God’s direct, benevolent rule. In short, by all that he did in the days of his flesh, Jesus laid a perfect and eternally abiding foundation of the coming of the Kingdom of God.

Not surprisingly, then, this same Kingdom lay at the very heart of his earthly ministry. We observe this in several different ways.

As we have seen, he heralded the Kingdom, proclaiming to all Israel that it was at hand: near and drawing nearer by the moment, both temporally and spatially (Matthew 4:17, 10:7; Mark 1:15).4

He previewed the Kingdom, miraculously rescuing multitudes from various spiritual and physical afflictions, and also restoring them to a measure of the perfect wholeness that would characterize life in the Kingdom when it actually came in fullness (Matthew 9:35, 10:6-8, 12:28, 17:1f).

He explained the Kingdom, introducing his disciples to the mysteries of its true nature and temporal structure, mysteries they would fully understand and enjoy only when the Kingdom had indeed come into the world, and they into the (first stage of the) Kingdom (Matthew 13:1ff; John 16:13; 1 Corinthians 2:6f; Ephesians 1:8-10).

And finally, he offered the Kingdom, directly and primarily to Jews, but also indirectly and secondarily to Gentiles (Matthew 10:6, 15:21-28, 21:1-23:38; John 4:1-42). Importantly, in making this offer, Jesus never projected himself as a temporal king who, in the manner of his forefather David, would rise to the throne by military might (Matthew 12:14-21; John 6:15). Rather, he simply called upon Israel to repent of their sin and to follow him in faith (Matthew 8:22, 11:25-30, 16:24, 19:21, 23:37-39; John 6:29). In other words, the Kingdom Jesus offered to Israel was always and only spiritual; it was always and only a direct, benevolent rule of God and Christ,to be made possible by the total redemptive work of Christ yet to be completed (Luke 17:20-21; John 6:3, 18:36). Here, then, we meet one of the great mysteries of God’s redemptive purpose and plan: The spiritual Kingdom that Christ sincerely and urgently offered to the Jew first, but also to the Gentile, could not be entered until Jew and Gentile had rejected both him and it, so that upon the solid foundation of his righteous life and atoning death his heavenly Kingdom of spiritual light and life might actually arise in the earth, and its mighty doors swing open to all (Matthew 23:37-38; John 3:14-15, 12:31-34; Romans 11:33-36)!

Heavenly Reign: The Kingdom Coming

The coming of the Kingdom is part and parcel of the exaltation of the Last Adam, the divine/human Messiah, the eternal Prophet, Priest, and King of God’s people. As we saw earlier, this exaltation was a key element in the Covenant of Redemption, according to which the Father, upon condition of the Son’s obedience unto death, would fulfill his eternal purpose for the Son by raising him from the dead, taking him up into heaven, seating him at his own right hand with all authority in heaven and earth, bestowing upon him the privilege of gathering in his elect, and also of consummating his eternal plan in final judgment and redemption at the Parousia. Again, it is through this great exaltation—and especially through Christ’s heavenly reign and Parousia—that God fulfills his eternal purpose for his Son, making him Head, or King, over a new humanity and a new world (Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:16-18, 2:19). It is through this that the saints experience the Promise of the Eternal Covenant. It is through this that the Kingdom of God actually comes into the world.

The NT is quite clear in designating the Day of Pentecost as the beginning of the coming of the Kingdom. As Jesus himself told Nicodemus, no one can see or enter the Kingdom unless he is born from above, born of the Spirit (John 3:3, 5). But no one could receive the Spirit until Christ had been glorified (John 7:39, 17:1,5): until he had finished his redemptive work (John 19:30), risen from the dead (Romans 4:25), entered heaven as the High Priest and Advocate of his people (Romans 8:34; Hebrews 9:24; 1 John 2:1), removed the legal veil separating God the Judge from man the sinner (Matthew 27:51; Hebrews 6:19-20, 10:19-22), received the promised Spirit from the Father (Acts 2:33), and poured out this same Spirit upon his own, as he did on the Day of Pentecost (Luke 24:49; Acts 2:33). Therefore, Pentecost was, as Peter himself affirmed, the beginning: the beginning of the Church, the beginning of the Era of Proclamation and Probation (Acts 2:14-39), the beginning of Christ’s heavenly reign (Acts 2:36), and the beginning of the coming of the Kingdom of God into the world (Acts 11:15).

We receive a picturesque and dramatic confirmation of this great truth in Revelation 12:1-12. In a vision, John beholds a Woman who gives birth to a Male Child who will one day act as a shepherd with a rod of iron towards all (disobedient) nations. For now, however, he is caught up to God and his throne (12:5). As soon as he is, war breaks out in heaven between Michael (and his angels) and the Dragon (and his angels). But the Dragon—who has hitherto successfully deceived the whole world–cannot prevail, and is cast down to the earth, along with his angels. At this, John hears a loud voice in heaven, saying:

Now salvation and strength and the kingdom of our God and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down. –Rev. 12:10-12; John 12:31-32

What a powerful picture this is! Christ, as High Priest and Sacrifice, has entered heaven, removing every legal barrier to the redemptive rescue and restoration that is the essence of the Kingdom. Henceforth, Satan has no legal grounds upon which to accuse God’s people, or to hold them captive by means of his various deceptions. Therefore, by the Spirit, Christ sends out his Church to preach this Good News; and by the same Spirit, he also enables his elect of every nation to believe it. In other words, through the preaching of the Gospel, Christ lawfully rescues God’s people from every deceiving shackle of the Domain of Darkness, transfers them into the spiritual Kingdom of the Son, and restores them to eternal life in union with God Triune (Colossians 1:13). As a result, ever since the Day of Pentecost the Kingdom of Satan has been continually falling, for which reason he rages in fury against the Church Militant, knowing that his time is short (12:12-17). But the saints are not to fear. Indeed, they are to rejoice! Because of their High Priest in heaven, the accuser cannot (successfully) condemn; and because of their High King in heaven, the tempter cannot retake and control. Accordingly, throughout the Era of Proclamation and Probation, Christ will build his Church, and will keep his Church (Matthew 16:18; John 10:16, 28-30). The Kingdom of our God and the power of his Christ have come, and they will infallibly continue to come, until that happy Day when they come in glorious fullness at the High King’s return (12:11, 14, 16).

Parousia: Kingdom Consummated

As we have seen in text after text, the third and final stage of the coming of the Kingdom is the Parousia: the return to earth of the glorified Lord Jesus Christ at the end of the present evil age, in order to raise the dead, transform the living, judge the world in righteousness, purge the present cosmos by fire, and create a glorious new world, the eternal home of the redeemed.

Here, all of God’s purposes in the Covenant of Redemption and the Covenant of Grace are finally fulfilled. Here the exalted Christ fully and finally places all (redeemed) things under his cosmic headship. Here he fully and finally rescues those things from every spiritual and physical enemy. And here he fully and finally restores them to every spiritual and physical blessing of the direct reign of God. In short, here Christ himself brings in the Kingdom in its full and final form, the form in which he is pleased to deliver it up to the Father, so that God—throughout the endless ages to come—may be all in all.


Our theme in this chapter has been the coming of the Kingdom. Earlier, we saw that the OT did indeed speak truly of a coming Kingdom, yet in veiled, symbolic language. In his Discourse on the Mysteries of the Kingdom, Jesus declares that the disciples cannot understand this language without the proper keys; and that the keys they need are none other than the mysteries that he himself is now placing in their hands.

These mysteries—repeatedly affirmed in the book of Acts, the epistles, and the Revelation—pertain both to the nature and structure of the Kingdom.

As to its structure, we saw that Jesus consistently represents the one Kingdom as coming in two stages: the Kingdom of the Son, followed by the Kingdom of the Father, the two being separated by one Parousia of Christ at the end of the present evil age.

As to its nature, we saw that in essence both stages of the Kingdom are the same: They are spheres of redemption, in which God reigns directly over his blessed subjects in virtue of the work of his Redeemer, a Redeemer who rescues his subjects from every spiritual and physical enemy, and restores them to every spiritual and physical friend.

Nevertheless, there are significant differences between the two stages of the Kingdom, differences that are vital for a full and proper understanding of biblical eschatology.

Thus, concerning the Kingdom of the Son, we saw that is temporary, extending from Pentecost to the Parousia. It emanates from heaven, and in particular from the High King of Heaven, who is seated at the Father’s right hand. It is altogether invisible to the naked eye, being a creation of the Christ who is himself hidden in heaven, and who secretly works in men’s hearts by a Spirit whom the world can neither see nor receive. Infallibly, this Kingdom spreads abroad, advancing throughout the earth by the “foolishness of preaching.” Miraculously, it grows to its appointed fullness, as the Spirit of God graciously bestows upon his people the gift of hearing with faith. For the world, its days are days of probation, in which, beneath the preaching of the Gospel, men are tested concerning their love of the truth about God. For the Church, its days are days of opposition, struggle, and humiliation; yet they are also days of hope, as the saints, following in the footsteps of their persecuted Master, make their pilgrim way through the wilderness of this world to the Land of Promise waiting up ahead.

When, however, Christ returns in power to consummate all things by the full spectrum of his great eschatological acts, he will usher in a very different Kingdom indeed.

Here in the Kingdom of the Father the divine reign is no longer partial, but complete; no longer temporary, but permanent. Here it no longer emanates from heaven above, for here heaven has descended to earth, so that earth and heaven are one. Here the Kingdom is no longer spiritual only, but spiritual and physical, extending not only to the saint’s bodies, but also to the new and glorified world in which they live. Here the Kingdom is no longer invisible, but fully manifest, for here the pure in heart see God. Here it is no longer growing, but full-grown: The harvest of the earth has been reaped, once and for all. Here, there is no longer a brief season of proclamation and testing, but an eternal season of reward or retribution. And here there is no longer a short night of struggle and humiliation, but an endless day of rest and glory for all who have believed, served, and overcome.

Now if indeed we are reading Christ and his apostles correctly—if indeed this is the truth about the nature and coming of the Kingdom of God—then it is clear we have reached a very special moment in our journey. For having received from our Teacher such precious keys as these, what is there to prevent us from using them to face one of greatest challenges of biblical eschatology? What is there to prevent us from using all we have learned to draw up a biblically sound time-line of Salvation History, a timeline that not only displays its true chronological structure, but also its very heart and soul?

Sound interesting? If so, meet me in chapter 10!


  1. In 1 Corinthians 15:50-57 Paul completes his discussion of the resurrection by introducing another “mystery,” the previously hidden truth that the saints living at the time of the Parousia will not die, but will be glorified “in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet.” This text also powerfully supports the simple two-staged view of the coming of the Kingdom. When will the living saints be glorified? At the resurrection of the dead (52). When will the resurrection occur? At the Parousia (23). What will sound at the Parousia? The last trumpet (52). Why is it called the last trumpet? Because it heralds the one resurrection that will forever swallow up death in victory (54-55). So then, for Paul the Parousia brings the end (24), the subjection of all enemies (25), the subjection of all things (26), the last trumpet (52), the resurrection of the dead (52), the glorification of the living saints, and (for the saints and the world they shall inherit) the eternal abolition of death. In short, the Parousia brings the Consummation of all things. How then, after the Parousia, shall Christ rule for a thousand years over a world in which Satan, various human and natural enemies, and death itself are still present; in which more resurrections and more judgments must occur; and over which still another “last” trumpet must sound?
  2. It is deeply instructive to see how premillennarians try to reconcile their eschatology with the plain sense of Paul’s teaching in this decisive text. John MacArthur, for example, commenting on verse 23, asserts that “those who are Christ’s will be raised and enter the eternal heavenly state in three stages at Christ’s coming” (MSB, p. 2401). What he means is that Christ’s Coming to raise the saints will occur in three stages: a pretribulation Coming (i.e., the Rapture, when he raises dead believers) a post-tribulation Coming (when he raises OT and Tribulation saints), and an intra-millennial Coming (when Christ, in all likelihood, will continually raise and glorify the millennial saints at the moment of their death)! This is an outstanding example of what theologians call eisegesis,reading something into a text that is not there, instead of simply extracting from the text what really is. No matter that in the entire Didactic NT there is not a single mention of a future Millennium; the premillennarian’s commitment to a literal interpretation of OTKP and the Revelation force him to make room for one, just as MacArthur does here. But would it not be better to take our cues from the Didactic NT, and so reconsider our commitment to prophetic literalism? Yes, says Christ and the apostles, it would.
  3. Historic premillennarian, George Ladd, pointing to the presence of certain Greek words denoting sequence, interprets verses 23-24 as follows: “An undefined interval falls between Christ’s resurrection and his parousia; and a second undefined interval falls between the parousia at the end” (New Testament Theology, p. 559). For Ladd, the second undefined interval is an earthly millennium. But does this text—or Paul’s eschatology as a whole—support his view? For reasons cited in note 1, I would strenuously argue that it does not, and that the interval between Christ’s one Parousia and the delivering up of the glorified Kingdom is precious short indeed.
  4. It is true that in the Gospels we find Jesus declaring that the Kingdom of God is in your midst (Luke 17:21, NAS), and that the Kingdom has come upon you (Mt. 12:28). This does not mean, however, that during the days of his flesh the Kingdom had come into the world as an abiding presence; that it had actually taken root in the earth; that it had begun its redemptive assault upon the Domain Darkness. For reasons indicated above, that coming must await the Day of Pentecost. So then, in these two texts Jesus is saying that the Kingdom that will come on the Day of Pentecost is even now in your midst (though not yet within you), and is even now upon you (though not yet permanently). By way of sneak preview, it is here; but by way of its definitive entrance into human history, it has not yet come.

Note: The following essay is an excerpt from my book, The High King of Heaven: Discovering the Master Keys to the Great End Time Debate. It is the first of two central chapters devoted to exploring NT teaching about the Kingdom of God. Here my theme is the nature of the Kingdom; in the sequel, it is the coming of the Kingdom: how the Kingdom enters history, and the stages in which it so enters until the universe, life and man reach the Final State in the World to Come. I hope these essays will enrich your understanding of all that our High King has accomplished for us through his redemptive work, and all that awaits us at His glorious return!


In the gospel according to Mark, the first words out of Jesus’ mouth are these: “The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent and believe the good news” (Mark 1:15). No doubt they fell sweetly upon the ears of all Israel. For centuries their prophets had promised a day when God would send his Messiah, through him launching a sequence of events that would culminate in the redemption and glorification of the whole world. For centuries, Israel had waited for it. And now, said Jesus to his astonished countrymen, the day is “at hand”—very near, and drawing nearer by the moment. The people were to prepare themselves spiritually. The hope of the ages was upon them.

At first, they were with him. Though his teachings—usually couched in parables—were enigmatic, his mighty miracles clearly identified him as a prophet (Luke 7:16). Moreover, he did little to discourage the Messianic speculation and fervor that the miracles aroused (Matthew 9:27, 12:23; John 4:29). And when, on Palm Sunday, he made his triumphal entry into Jerusalem, he openly to declared to all—to the Jewish people, their leaders, and Rome itself—that he was exactly what his exultant disciples believed him to be: the eschatological Son of David, the blessed Messianic King who comes in the name of the LORD (Luke 19:37-40)!

In the end, however, the nation turned against him (John 1:11). Why? Because he was not the Son of David they expected or wanted. If he had been, he would not have fallen into Pilate’s hands. If he had been, he would have roused the people to war. If he had been, he would have invoked the power of God once again, this time to lead Israel to victory over Rome and to eventual supremacy among the nations. No, the Pharisees had gotten it right after all. Jesus of Nazareth was just another in a long line of false prophets and false Messiah’s. Therefore, as Moses commanded, he must die, and the people must resume their long wait for the true King and the true Kingdom of God.

Jesus’ View of the Kingdom

If only they had understood. Had not Jesus told Nicodemus that without a spiritual rebirth, no one could see the Kingdom of God (John 3:3)? Had he not told the Pharisees that the Kingdom of God does not come with observation (Luke 17:20)? Had he not told Pilate that his Kingdom was not of this world (John 18:36)? And when the multitudes had tried to make him a king by force, had he not withdrawn from them, and later reproved them for a selfish materialism that blinded them to the true nature of his Messianic mission (John 6)?

Yes, Jesus of Nazareth was the Messianic herald of the Kingdom of God. But as all four gospels make painfully clear, his understanding of the Kingdom was different from that of the people to whom he proclaimed it—profoundly different!

What then was his understanding? Having pondered this crucial question for many years, I would argue that in proclaiming, expounding, and manifesting the true character of the Kingdom of God, our Lord always had in mind five main ideas. In the pages ahead, I will briefly examine each one, and then offer a working definition of the Kingdom as I believe Jesus saw it. Later in our journey, we shall discuss many of these ideas in greater depth.

A Direct Reign of God the Father

Above all else, Christ understood the Kingdom to be the direct reign (or rule) of God the Father over his creation. We see this truth on display in the Lord’s Prayer, where he taught his disciples to say, “Thy Kingdom come, Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven” (Matthew 6:10). Here we have a virtual definition of the Kingdom: It is the sphere where God’s will is being done as it is in heaven. But to understand this saying, we must be clear on two points. First, what exactly does Jesus mean by the Father’s “will”? And secondly, what is the difference, at present, between the way this will is being done in heaven and on earth?

Concerning the first question, it is clear that here Jesus has in mind what theologians call God’s will of precept (or moral will, or will of command). Revealed in Eden, revealed in Christ, and revealed in his Scriptural promises and precepts, it may be defined as that which God expressly desires his creatures to do and to be, so that they, reflecting both the character of their Creator and his benevolent purpose for their lives, may naturally and joyfully bring glory to him.

Up in heaven, God’s will of precept is now being done perfectly. Why? Because up there God rules directly over the spirits of the saints and angels, with the result that their wills and his will are one. This is what makes heaven to be heaven. Since there God conforms all things to his will of precept, all things reflect his glory and partake of his joy. In heaven, the Kingdom of God has come.

However, it has not yet come to the earth; or rather, it has not yet fully come to the earth, as it has to heaven. Importantly, this does not mean that in our fallen world God’s “will” is not being done. For according to the Bible, everything that happens on earth happens according to his will of purpose, that is, according to his eternal decrees. Mysteriously enough, this even includes situations and events that are contrary to his will of precept. Thus, we find Jesus asking, “Are not two sparrows sold for a copper coin, and not one of them falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will” (Matthew 10:29; John 19:11; Ephesians 1:11). No, it is not God’s positive desire—his will of precept—that sparrows should fall to the ground. But yes, for wise reasons it is indeed—for the moment—his will of purpose.

We find, then, that God’s absolute sovereignty over all events does not mean that his Kingdom has (fully) come to the earth. That’s because at present he is largely reigning indirectly. In other words, his sovereign rule over all things is mediated by, or passes through, a judicial curse that he himself has placed upon the creation—a curse that terribly distorts the ideal nature of all things (Gen. 3:15f). When, however, God’s will of purpose for all (redeemed) things has been fulfilled at last, his will of purpose and his will of precept will be one. In that day, his Kingdom will have come to earth, even as it has already to come to heaven.

Our Lord commands his saints to pray—and labor—for this very thing. They are to ask the Father to advance his redemptive purpose in the earth; to lift his hand of judgment and to remove all distortions; to cause his “will of precept” to be done here, even as it is being done among the saints and angels in heaven. In short, they are to pray for the Father to extend his direct reign over all his redeemed creatures. They are to pray for the (complete) coming of the Kingdom of God.

A Sphere of Wholeness and Blessing

Secondly, Christ understood the Kingdom to be a sphere of wholeness and blessing. This only stands to reason, since wherever God reigns directly over his creatures, those creatures must take on the likeness of their Creator. They must reflect, in their own nature, the integrity, beauty, and blessedness of the One who made them.

Over and again we see this important truth vividly reflected in the gospels. Consider, for example, this thought-provoking text from Matthew: “Jesus was going about all the cities and the villages, teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the gospel of the Kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness” (Matthew 9:35; 10:7-8, 12:28). Here, the juxtaposition of Jesus’ saying and doing is profoundly revealing. On the one hand, he is proclaiming that the Kingdom is near; on the other, he is healing all manner of disease and sickness. Surely, then, both he and Matthew mean for us to understand that wherever the Kingdom is present, there God himself also is present to do two things: to rescue from the manifold effects of sin, and to restore to the kind of wholeness and blessedness that he had originally planned for his creatures in the beginning! In other words, wherever the Kingdom is present, God is present to redeem.

Unless we completely understand these three key words—redemption, rescue, and restoration—we cannot understand the Kingdom of God. That’s because the Kingdom, in Jesus’ eyes, was exactly what the prophets of old had promised: a sphere of wholeness and blessing that is the direct result of God’s redemptive activity. It is the direct result of God rescuing his people and his world from the manifold spiritual and physical enemies introduced by Adam at the Fall, and also of his restoring them to the manifold “friends” he originally planned for them at the creation. Again, unless we fully grasp these closely related ideas, we cannot understand the Kingdom. Through God’s redemptive action in history, his people and his world are rescued and restored; through his redemptive action, they are brought under the blessedness of his direct reign; through his redemptive action, the Kingdom of God comes.

It is well worthwhile to illustrate these great truths from our Lord’s earthly ministry, from the works of Christ during the days of his flesh.

As we just saw, through Christ God rescued the blind (Matthew 9:27f; John 9:1-7), the lame (John 5:1f), the leprous (Luke 17:11f), the paralyzed (Matthew 8:5-13), the sick (Matthew 8:14-15, 9:20-22), the mute (Matthew 9:32f), and the deformed (Matthew 12:1-13), and he restored them all—if only temporarily—to perfect health. Here, then, for all with eyes to see, was a sneak preview of the Kingdom of God, when it will come benevolently, redemptively, and definitively upon sinful and broken human flesh.

On more than one occasion, God also worked through Christ to rescue the dead from death itself, restoring them not only to life, but also to their loved ones, and to the pleasures of family and friends that were the traditional scriptural earmarks of the Kingdom (Jeremiah 33:10-11; Zechariah 8:2-5; Matthew 8:11, 9:18-25, 22:1f; Luke 7:11-15; John 11:1-44; Zechariah 8:2-5; Matthew 8:11, 22:1f).

Moreover, through Jesus, God seemed even to put his healing touch on inanimate nature itself, “rescuing” the raging waters of the Sea of Galilee from a deadly windstorm, thereby restoring them to peace (Matthew 8:23-27); or rescuing the multitude of his followers from a dangerous lack of food in the wilderness, and restoring them to abundant provision and the satisfaction of a full stomach (Matthew 14:15f, 15:32f).

Through Christ, God also rescued many poor souls tormented by evil spirits, restoring them to soundness of mind and body (Matthew 8:28f, 12:22, 15:21f, 17:14f; Mark 1:23f; Luke 13:11f). Very notably, when the Pharisees accused him of casting out demons by the power of Satan, Jesus vigorously contested their flawed reasoning. Then, in a direct challenge of his own, he concluded his argument by saying, “But if I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then surely the Kingdom of God has come upon you” (Matthew 12:28; Luke 11:20). This powerful text teaches us that it belongs to the very essence of the Kingdom that the Spirit of God should arrive upon the scene, rescue people from every power of evil, and restore them to the mental and physical wholeness that will always characterize life under his direct reign.

Finally, and most importantly, through Christ, God rescued sinners from their terrible burden of guilt and shame, forgiving those who turned to Jesus of their sins, thereby restoring them to the peace, love, joy, gratitude, and hope of eternal life that ever marks the community of the redeemed (Luke 7:36-50, 15:1f, 18:9-14, 19:1f).

We find, then, that Jesus’ miraculous ministry was designed to do something more than confirm his status as a prophet, or as the Messiah, or even as the Son of God. Beyond all these, it was designed to give Israel—and all mankind—a glimpse and foretaste of the Kingdom of God itself; of the redemptive rescue and restoration by which God enables every believer in Christ to experience the blessedness of life beneath his direct rule.

Mediated by the Son of God

This brings us to our third point, namely, that the direct reign of God the Father is always mediated by God the Son. Later we will explore in greater depth the divine rationale for this crucial characteristic of the Kingdom. Here, however, it suffices to say that this important characteristic is on display all throughout Christ’s earthly ministry. How were the people healed? How were they delivered? How were they supplied, or raised, or pardoned, or filled with renewed faith, hope, and love? The answer shines on every page of the gospels: All these things happened when Jesus reached out and touched them; or when they reached out and touched him; or when he taught, or prayed, or a mighty word of command. Yes, in the end it was God the Father who was doing the works. But in the end, it was always through Jesus that he did them!

This is a recurring theme in the most profoundly christological gospel, the Gospel of John. Over and again we hear Christ saying, “Truly, truly I say to you, the Son can do nothing by himself, unless it is something he sees the Father doing” (John 5:19, 30, 6:38, 8:28, 12:49, 14:10). But the more we consider the work of God in the gospels, the more we see that the reverse is also true: The Father will do nothing by himself, unless it is something he is pleased to do through his Son! Why? Because he desires that all should honor the Son, even as they honor the Father (John 5:23). For this reason, it is the Father’s good pleasure to rescue and restore his people and their world through Christ; it is his good pleasure to bring in the Kingdom of God through his only-begotten Son.

Jesus himself affirmed this very thing as a matter of principle. Thus, in a midnight conversation with master Nicodemus, he declared, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a man is born again, he cannot see the Kingdom of God” (John 3:3). Now Nicodemus had definitely seen Jesus’ miracles, and he had also seen that God was behind them (John 3:1). Nevertheless, because he was not yet born again, he could neither see—nor enter—the Kingdom of God (John 3:5). Why? Because he could not see the King, or the nature of the Kingdom over which God had placed him! Soon, however, he would be able to. For as Jesus himself intimated that very night, in time he (Christ) would die, rise, and ascend to heaven; and in time he would pour out the Holy Spirit on Nicodemus, renew him inwardly, and open his eyes. Then he would be able to see the King, high and lifted up: not only upon the Cross (John 3:14-16), but also at the right hand of God (Acts 2:33). Then he would be able to see Christ’s deity, and the meaning of his redemptive work on earth. And then, coming to the one Mediator between God and man—the high Prophet, Priest, and King of Heaven—he would be able experience, at long last, the direct rule of God the Father over his whole being. In short, through Christ—and through a Spirit-wrought faith in him—Nicodemus would enter the Kingdom of God.

Later in our study we will explore these crucial themes more deeply. However, as we begin to grapple with the great question of the nature of the Kingdom, let us even now resolve always to remember this: Jesus explicitly taught that the direct reign of God the Father is always mediated by God the Son. Said he, “The Kingdom of God belongs to such as these” (Mark 10:14). And who are “these”? They are all who, like little children, simply come to him (Matthew 11:28f, 18:1-5, 19:14).

Effected by the Holy Spirit

The Lord Jesus consistently portrayed the coming of the Kingdom as a trinitarian event. For him, the direct reign of the Father comes through the Son, and is implemented or effected by the Holy Spirit. The OT prophets had predicted this very thing, closely associating the last days with the gift and outpouring of the Spirit upon all of God’s people (Isaiah 44:3; Ezekiel 36:27, 37:14, 39:29; Joel 2:28). In his midnight discourse to Master Nicodemus, Jesus did the same, juxtaposing the coming of the Kingdom with the coming of the Spirit, and the coming of both with his own life, death, and resurrection (John 3:1-12f). Also, we have seen that the Lord explicitly declared that where the Spirit is at work to rescue and restore, there the Kingdom has come upon the creature(s) that the Father is pleased to redeem (Mattew 12:28; Luke 11:20). Moreover, throughout his entire Upper Room discourse, we find him preparing his disciples for the coming of the Spirit, through whom, in due season, they will be able to declare the coming of the Kingdom (John 13-16; Acts 1:4-8, 8:12, 19:8, 20:5, 28:31). So then, in Jesus’ eyes the coming of the Kingdom is a gracious gift and accomplishment of the Holy Trinity. It is the coming of the Father to reign directly through the Son, by the Holy Spirit, over all his redeemed creatures.

A Realm Beneath a Reign

Finally, Jesus not only viewed the Kingdom as a reign, but also as a realm; as the totality of redeemed persons, places, and things that blessedly dwell beneath the direct rule of God.

In the gospels, this idea appears prominently in his explanation of the parable of the wheat and the tares. Speaking of the Judgment that will occur at his Parousia, he says:

The Son of Man will send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness, and will cast them into the furnace of fire; in that place there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. –Matthew 13:41-42

Here we catch a glimpse of the realm of the completed Kingdom. At the end of the age, Christ will come again. When he does, he himself will create a perfect world. But in order to do this, he must first remove all stumbling blocks, everything that “scandalizes” or offends against the holiness that will mark the new creation. Therefore, the devil must go, the devil’s followers (the tares) must go, and indeed every mark and vestige of the fallenness of the old order of nature must go. When this occurs, the perfect reign of God will have created a perfected realm of God. And that realm is properly called the Kingdom of God.

As we shall see later, even now, during the present Church era, this realm exists. Even now God is transferring a chosen people from the Domain of Darkness into the Kingdom of his beloved Son (Colossians 1:13). Even now, these people are subjects of the High King of Heaven, citizens of the Jerusalem above (Philippians 3:20). Even now they are a Kingdom and priests to his God (Revelation 5:10). So then, the Church on earth is an invisible realm, and outpost of the Kingdom of heaven, dwelling and laboring amidst the kingdom(s) of this present evil world. And again, at his return Christ will perfect this realm—not only his people, but also the physical world that they will ever inhabit—and then deliver it up, as a supreme gift, to his Father (1 Corinthians 15:20-28). In that Day, say the Scriptures, all the kingdoms of the earth will have become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ; all things will dwell blessedly under his direct reign; all things will belong to his holy realm (Revelation 11:15).

The Essence of the Kingdom

Though much more remains to be said, we are now in a good position to give an extended definition of the nature, or essence, of the Kingdom of God as Jesus revealed it to us. I would frame it as follows:

In essence, the Kingdom of God is the direct reign of God the Father, through the Son, by the Spirit, over his redeemed creatures; creatures who have been rescued from every spiritual and physical enemy, and restored to every spiritual and physical friend that God planned for them in the beginning. Also, the Kingdom is the blessed realm that this redemptive reign creates, and over which it forever rules.    

The Kingdom and the New Covenant

Did Jesus embrace what we earlier called the Representative OT Idea of the Kingdom? That is, did he join with his Jewish contemporaries in thinking of the Kingdom as an ideal Mosaic theocracy? From all we have learned so far, clearly not. Yes, during the days of his flesh the Law was in effect. And yes, for important reasons he obeyed it implicitly. Nevertheless, even a cursory reading of the gospels shows that during Jesus’ earthly ministry God the Father was not performing his redemptive work through any person or ordinance associated with the existing religious system, but simply through his incarnate Son. In other words, the Kingdom was not coming through the Law, but through the One who was in the process of fulfilling the Law: the Lord Jesus Christ (John 1:17).

We have already touched on this crucial theme several times. Here, however, in our discussion of the good news of the Kingdom, we must explore it more deeply. Three crucial points may be made.

First, in his teaching ministry, Jesus closely associated the Kingdom of God with a New Covenant. We remember that in OT times Jeremiah had promised one (Jeremiah 31:31). Throughout the NT we learn that Jesus himself brought it into the world, sealing it with his own blood (Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 8:8).

The story here begins with the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7). Ascending as he did to a mountaintop, and there giving his disciples a new (evangelical) law, he is clearly emulating Moses; indeed, he is acting as “a greater than Moses,” as God’s eschatological Moses, as the mediator of a new and eternal covenant, of which the OT Law was a type or picture. Very importantly, in his articulation of this new evangelical Law, Christ repeatedly refers to the Kingdom of God (Matthew 5:3, 10, 19-20, 6:10, 13, 33, 7:21). The implication is clear: The Kingdom he is proclaiming and demonstrating in his earthly ministry will enter the world in conjunction with a new covenant, a covenant expounded (here and elsewhere in his teaching ministry) by the Messianic Prophet, and in the end to be ratified by the blood of the Messianic Priest and Sacrifice (Luke 22:20).

Secondly, Jesus explicitly taught that the Mosaic Law was about to pass away, permanently. Earlier, we discussed the reason why: The Old Covenant must pass away because the New and Eternal Covenant fulfills it (Matthew 5:17). The elements and institutions of the Old Covenant were in the nature of a promise: Mystically, they pointed ahead to the Redeemer, and to the elements and institutions of the New Covenant that he would bring. Now, however, the Redeemer has come. Therefore, the temporary and promissory institutions of the Old Covenant are obsolete. They must forever pass away, in order to make room for those that will remain forever.

Let us hear the Lord himself on this:

No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch pulls away from the garment, and the tear is made worse. Nor do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the wineskins break, the wine is spilled, and the wineskins are ruined. But they put new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved. –Matthew 9:16-17

The message of these memorable tropes is quite simple: The Old Covenant and the New Covenant are incompatible. The disciples cannot live under both at the same time. Everyday objects and events make this truth clear. If people hope to enjoy the blessings of a new garment or a new wineskin, they must not try to combine the new with the old; that will only make a mess of both. Rather, they must discard the old and completely invest themselves in the new. Similarly, if the disciples hope to enjoy the blessings of the New Covenant, they cannot mingle them with the trappings of the Old. Because the Old is now obsolete, they must let it pass away completely, once and for all.

Jesus spoke of end of the Mosaic Law in other ways, as well. During the last week of his life, when he publicly offered himself to Israel as their Messiah, the spiritually hungry Christ came up to a fig tree, found no fruit on it, and cursed it, saying, “Let no one eat fruit from you again” (Mark 11:14). The tree represented national Israel, destitute of spiritual fruit (Luke 3:8, 13:6f). But more than this, it also represented the Law, which was largely incapable of producing such fruit (Jeremiah 31:31f). And once Christ fulfills the Law through his life, death, and resurrection, it will become utterly devoid of any vital connection with him, and so completely dead and fruitless. Consigned by God to obsolescence, it will fall like so much religious chaff into the “elementary principles of the (religious) world” (2 Kings 18:4; Galatians 4:3, 9).

Similarly, we remember that when Jesus exited Jerusalem on the afternoon before his crucifixion, the disciples asked him to comment on the grandeur of Herod’s temple. Solemnly, he replied, “Do you not see all these things? Truly, I say to you not one stone shall be left here upon another that shall not be thrown down” (Matthew 24:2). This was a shocking word. The temple was the very heart of the nation, the hub of the Jewish ceremonial Law, the locus of all Israel’s sacrifices, and the destination of her pilgrims on all the high holy days. In effect, its destruction would be the destruction of Judaism, the end of the Mosaic Law. But this is precisely what Jesus declares. God, by his supernatural Power, is about to tear down the veil of the temple at the hand of his Holy Spirit (Matthew 27:51). And God, by his Providence, is about to tear down the temple itself at the hand of Rome. Like the Law itself, neither emblem of the Law will ever rise again.

We conclude, then, that Jesus could not possibly have thought of the Kingdom as an ideal Mosaic theocracy, since he clearly believed that in fulfilling the Mosaic Law he was making it forever obsolete.

The Kingdom and Replacement

This brings us to a final and closely related point: Jesus taught that in fulfilling the several institutions of the Mosaic Law, he was replacing them with new ones, once and for all. The anti-type fulfills the type, and so replaces it. The greater fulfills the lesser, and so supplants it. The heavenly body, shaped in eternity past, fulfills the earthly shadow, and so floods the room with a light that expels all shadows (Colossians 2:17). There is no going back.

In order to understand this idea of replacement better, let us consider a few examples, drawn more or less exclusively from the teaching of the High King himself.

We have just seen that Jesus presented himself as the supreme Mediator, a greater than Moses, bringing in a new and greater covenant. Christ and his covenant are therefore replacing Moses and his.

Jesus is also the supreme Prophet, a greater than Moses, Elijah, or John the Baptist, and so replaces all former prophets as the authoritative spokesman of God and teacher of his people (Matthew 17:1f, 23:10; Mark 8:28; John 9:17; Acts 3:22).

He is the supreme Priest, a greater than Levi, and so replaces Levi as the one who intercedes for God’s people (Luke 23:34; John 17), offers sacrifice for their sin (John 10:11, 17:19), and assures the penitent of God’s mercy and forgiveness (Matthew 9:2; Luke 7:48, 24:43; John 20:23).

He is the supreme Sacrifice, a greater than all the animal sacrifices offered under the Law, and so replaces them as the one Lamb of God who gives his life a ransom for many, thereby taking away the sin of the new world for which he died (Mark 10:45; John 1:29).

He is the true Temple, a greater than Herod’s, and so replaces Herod’s with his own Body, which is the true and eternal Tabernacle of God (Matthew 12:6; John 2:19, 10:38).

Moreover, because of this, his people no longer worship the Father on earthly Zion, but on the Zion above, in spirit and in truth, whenever they wish and wherever their physical bodies happen to be. In short, NT worship in spirit and truth replaces OT worship in Jerusalem (John 4:21f, 14:20, 17:23; Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 14:1f).

He is the true Sabbath, a greater than the Israelite Sabbath, and Lord over it, with authority from God to give his people true spiritual rest, as well as the Spirit-led worship and work that properly arise from it (Matthew 11:28, 12:48; John 6:29, 15:1f, 19:30).

He is the true Passover Lamb—and his death the true Passover sacrifice—so that henceforth the Passover Feast is replaced with the Lord’s Supper, wherein Christ’s people remember, celebrate, and re-appropriate their spiritual rescue from the world, the flesh, and the devil, and their spiritual restoration to God (Matthew 26:17-30; Mark 14:12-2; Luke 22:7-23; John 5:24).

Very importantly, his is the true nation (Mt. 21:43), the true flock (John 10:16), the true household (Mark 13:34; Luke 14:23; John 8:35), and the true city (Matthew 5:14) of God, so that henceforth Christ’s Church of called out Jews and Gentiles replaces ethnic Israel (who are still beloved for the sake of the fathers; Romans 11:28) as the true people of God (Matthew 16:18).

And over this nation he rules as the supreme King, a greater than David (Matthew 22:41-46) and Solomon (Matthew 12:24), and so replaces Israel’s many earthly kings with a single heavenly king: the High King of Heaven and Earth, the divine Lord of the “Israel of God” (Matthew 28:18f; Luke 19:12; John 18:36; Galatians 6:16).

Much more could be said on this point, and in their letters to the early Christian churches the apostles say it. However, from what we have seen so far, it is quite clear that the Lord Jesus viewed the institutions of the Mosaic Law as temporary physical “types” pointing forward to the permanent spiritual realities of the New Covenant. Accordingly, his own teaching on these matters completely rules out the notion that the Kingdom of God, in any of its stages, can ever again take on the trappings of a Mosaic theocracy.


In the present chapter we have listened hard to the Herald of the Kingdom, endeavoring to discern from the words and works of Christ the true nature of the Kingdom of God. Thus far we have seen that he viewed it as a direct reign of God the Father, through the Son, by the Spirit; a reign that falls upon redeemed creatures who have been rescued from every spiritual enemy, and restored to every spiritual friend; a reign that creates a realm, the Kingdom of God.

Now if we had learned nothing more than this, we would be strongly inclined to conclude that the Kingdom has little or nothing to do with a Mosaic theocracy. But we did learn more. We learned that Jesus viewed the events and institutions of OT times as temporary physical “types” of permanent spiritual realities that he himself was introducing under the New Covenant. We learned that he saw himself and the New Covenant as fulfilling OT institutions, replacing them, and rendering them forever obsolete.

Obviously, this has important implications for eschatology. In particular, it raises grave doubts about theocratic ideas of the Kingdom. In other words, it raises grave doubts about the various schools of premillennialism, all of which posit a future thousand year revival of OT institutions (e.g., a temple, priests, sacrifices, feasts, etc.) following the New Covenant era and the second coming of Christ.

Nevertheless, despite all we have learned so far, we cannot make a final decision about a future millennial stage of the Kingdom until we take the next logical step in our investigation; until we ascertain what Christ and his apostles taught, not only about the nature of the Kingdom, but also about the coming of the Kingdom.

To get to the bottom of this crucial subject, we must ask ourselves a number of important questions: Did Jesus think of the Kingdom as being present in his earthly ministry? Did he think of it at yet come, say on the Day of Pentecost? If so, did he think of it as coming all at once, or as coming in several stages? If in several stages, how many would there be? And if in several stages, what would the distinctive characteristics of each stage be? In short, we must try to determine Jesus’ exact view as to when and how the promised redemption of the universe, life, and man is to occur.

This is my theme in the second essay in this series, The Coming of the Kingdom (for which, click here). And as you plunge into it, I invite you to pay the closest possible attention. For unless I am very much mistaken, in exploring this subject you will discover once and for all the true winner in the Great End Time Debate!